Electrified dental implants

30 07 2012

Infections on dental implants are dreaded. There is a great risk that the jawbone will recede as a result. Researchers have now developed a method that could effectively eliminate the bacteria causing the inflammation.

Nowadays almost every dentist inserts dental implants. If an infection occurs after implantation, this can entail lengthy treatment for the patient. In the worst case scenario, the implant has to be removed again (Image: fRandi-Shooters / flickr)

Nowadays almost every dentist inserts dental implants. If an infection occurs after implantation, this can entail lengthy treatment for the patient. In the worst case scenario, the implant has to be removed again (Image: fRandi-Shooters / flickr)


One shudders at the thought of passing an electric current into a patient through the titanium screw of a dental implant. Torture? No – the correct dose of electricity can kill bacteria. A few milliamperes are sufficient, which the patient perceives either as a slight muscle contraction or not at all, depending on their sensitivity and the intensity of the current. This was shown by the experiments carried out by Dirk Mohn in the context of his doctoral thesis with ETH Zurich Professor Wendelin Stark at the Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, in collaboration with Thomas Imfeld, Professor at the Centre for Dental Medicine of the University of Zurich.


Bone atrophy and implant loss

The number of dental implants inserted in Europe and the USA has doubled in the past ten years. “It is estimated that five million dental implants were inserted in 2009 in the industrialised countries, about one million of them in Germany and 100,000 in Switzerland”, says Thomas Imfeld. He also states that, in parallel with this, the number of dental surgeons who insert implants has also doubled since 1994. The dental practitioner stresses that, according to a survey, 80 percent of Swiss dentists would perform such operations today, but only 30 percent of them would do so regularly, i.e. inserting more than 50 implants per year. Problems occur with about ten percent of the implants, mostly in the first year after the operation. Either the implant does not heal into the bone at all, or the surrounding tissue can become infected. An infection can ultimately lead to bone atrophy and thus end in implant removal by explantation.

Nowadays, so-called peri-implantal inflammation is treated mechanically using an abrasive or laser procedure, or with locally applied antibiotics. The researchers’ aim was to develop a non-invasive method to treat such inflammation effectively and gently. “The idea originates from water purification, where an electric current is used for classical electrolysis”, says Dirk Mohn. The scientists use a gelatine prepared with physiological salt solution to simulate the jaw. Into this they put original titanium implants, which they have coated prior with a film of Escherichia coli bacteria.

Success with less than 10 milliamperes

In the experimental set-up, one implant acts as the cathode and one as the anode for the flow of current. The implants are exposed for 15 minutes to a current between 0 and 10 milliamperes. The electrolysis caused by the voltage field generated led to water molecules being dissociated into hydroxyl ions at the cathode, thus raising the pH. Indicators in the gelatine show the alkaline medium by means of a colour change. Consequently, the pH decreases at the anode, and powerful oxidisers such as chlorine are formed from the salt solution. Oxidising chlorine species are the key components in the electrochemical reaction, since these substances have a much greater disinfecting capacity than the mere alkaline medium at the cathode. The series of experiments with various current intensities shows that, after a fifteen minute treatment with current of less than ten milliamperes, 99 percent of the bacteria are killed at the implants acting as anodes.

In patients, the implant would act as the anode. Mohn says that a lip clip would be a possible cathode. The scientists are currently developing an appropriate device for initial experiments on a living organism – on dogs, for example. In parallel with this, the researchers are expanding their in vitro experimental set-up with a broader population of bacteria, corresponding to the diversity of bacteria found in the mouth.


Literature reference:

Mohn D, Zehnder M, Stark WJ, Imfeld T (2011): Electrochemical Disinfection of Dental Implants – a Proof of Concept. PLoS ONE 6(1): e16157. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0016157



Ethlife.ethz.ch [en línea] Zurich (CH): ethlife.ethz.ch, 30 in July of 2012 [REF. 08 March of 2011] Available on Internet: http://www.ethlife.ethz.ch/archive_articles/110308_Zahnimplantate_su/index_EN

First Green, then Red – Fluorescent Dye Timer Tells the Age of Proteins

26 07 2012

In many diseases, from infections through to cancer, the protein metabolism in the cell is defective. Scientists from the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), the Center for Molecular Biology of Heidelberg University (ZMBH), and the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) have now developed a method that enables them to monitor the aging process of proteins in a cell with unprecedented precision. The group has reported their results in the latest issue of Nature Biotechnology.

The novel dye timer makes visible that the mother cell keeps the older proteins (red), whereas the daughter cell forms new molecules (green).

The novel dye timer makes visible that the mother cell keeps the older proteins (red), whereas the daughter cell forms new molecules (green).

Proteins have important functions in our body: They confer structure, catalyze chemical reactions, serve as transport molecules for important substances, protect from pathogenic agents, and serve as an emergency source of energy. However, if the amount of a protein increases or decreases strongly, this often results in disease. If, for example, the p53 protein, which has been called the “guardian of the genome”, is broken down in an uncontrolled manner, processes like DNA repair, control of cell division, or induction of cell death cannot take place in the affected cell. As a result, the defective cell starts dividing uncontrollably and a tumor arises. To determine whether the protein metabolism of a cell is defective, researchers in the group of Professor Michael Knop have developed a novel method: They make proteins glow. However, instead of using a single fluorescent dye, as it is commonly done, the investigators have developed a complex of a red and a green fluorescent marker. This so-called tandem fluorescent protein timer (tFT) is linked to the protein during the very process of protein synthesis and, thus, delivers information about the amount, location and age of the molecules.

Michael Knop, leader of the Research Group “Cell Morphogenesis and Signal Transduction” in the DKFZ-ZMBH Alliance, explains how this new method works: “Immediately after the cell has formed the protein, the green dye – consisting of green fluorescent protein, GFP – starts emitting light. That means that in all those places in the cell where green light is emitted the molecule is found. Based on the color intensity of the emitted light, we are also able to determine the quantity of the protein.” From the fluorescence, the scientists are now also able to infer on the age of molecules. “As time progresses, the red fluorescent protein also starts emitting light. As a result, the proteins shift colors from green to red as they get older,” Knop continues to explain. “Thus, we can differentiate newly formed – green – proteins from old – red – ones. This enables us to calculate their lifespan and check whether a protein is being broken down more rapidly or more slowly than usual.” An additional advantage: tFTs produce very bright fluorescence so that the method has a high sensitivity.

The novel tFTs make it possible to monitor the age of proteins in a timeframe ranging from ten minutes up to several hours. If the green fluorescent protein (GFP) is combined with different fluorescent dyes, it is even possible to track breakdown processes taking place over several days. The investigators used yeast as a model organism. The reason: This single-celled organism is very similar to our cells in many basic processes and is therefore a suitable model. Moreover, Professor Elmar Schiebel, leader of the Research Group “Segregation of Chromosomes in Mitosis” in the DKFZ-ZMBH Alliance, has shown with his team that this method also works in human cells. This opens up whole new prospects for examining damaged cells and for developing new drugs to regulate protein stability in diseased cells.

Anton Khmelinskii, Philipp J Keller, Anna Bartosik, Matthias Meurer, Joseph D Barry, Balca R Mardin, Andreas Kaufmann, Susanne Trautmann, Malte Wachsmuth, Gislene Pereira, Wolfgang Huber, Elmar Schiebel & Michael Knop: Tandem fluorescent protein timers for in vivo analysis of protein dynamics. Nature Biotechnology, 2012, DOI: 10.1038/nbt.2281


Uni-heidelberg.de [en línea] Heidelberg (GER): uni-heidelberg.de, 26 in July of 2012 [REF. 25 in June of 2012] Available on Internet: http://www.uni-heidelberg.de/presse/meldungen/2012/m20120625_timer_en.html

E.O. Wilson: Advice to young scientists

23 07 2012

“The world needs you, badly,” begins celebrated biologist E.O. Wilson in his letter to a young scientist. Previewing his upcoming book, he gives advice collected from a lifetime of experience — reminding us that wonder and creativity are the center of the scientific life.

[ted id=1485]

Biologist E.O. Wilson explores the world of ants and other tiny creatures, and writes movingly about the way all creatures great and small are interdependent.

In the attempt to make scientific discoveries, every problem is an opportunity — and the more difficult the problem, the greater will be the importance of its solution.” (E.O. Wilson)

Ted.com[en línea] NY (USA): ted.com, 23 in July of 2012 [REF. abril de 2012] Available on Internet:http://www.ted.com/talks/e_o_wilson_advice_to_young_scientists.html

Closer to the prevention of dengue fever

19 07 2012

The programme for the eradication of dengue (Eliminate Dengue Project), developing a new approach to reduce the impact of this disease in the world, begins to bear fruit. The research team managed to enter the bacterium Wolbachia in wild populations of the transmitter the dengue mosquito to reduce their ability to spread the virus to people.

El equipo de investigación consiguió introducir la bacteria Wolbachia en poblaciones salvajes del mosquito que transmite el dengue. Imagen:Eliminate Dengue Program

The research team managed to enter the Wolbachia bacteria in wild populations of the mosquito that transmits dengue. Image:Eliminate Dengue Program

Two new studies reveal the success of the trials of biological control with wild populations of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito which transmits the virus of the dengue. The work, published in Nature, they represent a new approach to reduce their infection in the world.

The scientific team managed to enter the Wolbachia, a bacterium that reduces the sensitivity of the mosquito of dengue virus, in wild populations of the insect. "It's the first release of mosquitoes infected with the bacteria" Wolbachia "in the nature to replace an existing population of insects", explain the authors, who claim that if these results are repeatable, "there is the possibility of drastic reductions in the incidence of dengue virus".

These results are the work of the programme for the eradication of dengue (Eliminate Dengue Project), directed by Scott O'Neill, of Monash University (Australia), in which Australia research institutes collaborate, Viet Nam, Thailand, USA and Brazil.

Current methods of control, based on the use of insecticides, they fail to stop this global health problem. However, "the methods that use the" Wolbachia they are easy to use and could be the key to a sustainable new approach to control dengue, that should adapt to the great cities of the developed world, in which conventional control measures have proved effective and little expensive. "The method should also be compatible with the vaccines when starting to use", says O'Neill.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 2.500 millions of people live in areas of transmission of dengue and recorded more than 50 million cases per year.

So far, experiments for years demonstrated that it could introduce the Wolbachia in the mosquito in the laboratory, However, the articles published this week describe also the successful introduction of the same strain of Wolbachia in wild populations of Australia mosquito.

Effectiveness in five weeks

In January of this year, the researchers freed-carrying mosquitoes of the Wolbachia Yorkeys Knob and Gordonvale, two areas on the outskirts of Cairns, in Queensland (Australia). In three months, the Wolbachia It had completely invaded the local mosquito populations.

"The field test implies release mosquitoes with" Wolbachia every week for more than two months. Five weeks after releasing mosquitoes, We calculated that the 100% Yorkeys Knob mosquitoes and the 90% of the Gordonvale wore the Wolbachia. "It was a great day", drew O'Neill.

The authors provide for further testing when time becomes more humid, in order to analyse if the Wolbachia It extends to areas less controlled than the first test was performed. After the success, you are trying to get legal approval for testing in Thailand, Viet Nam, Brazil and Indonesia that directly determine the efficacy of the method in reducing the incidence of dengue in human populations.

Bibliographic references:

T. Walker, P. H. Johnson, L. A. Moreira, I. Iturbe-Ormaetxe, (F). (D). Frentiu, (C). J. McMeniman, Y. S. LEONG,AAND. Dong, J. Axford, P. Kriesner, A. L. Lloyd, S. A. Ritchie, S. L. O'Neill and. A. Hoffmann. "The" wMel Wolbachia "blocks and dengue strain invades caged Aedes aegypti populations". Nature, 25 in August of 2011. DOI:10.1038/nature10355.

A. A. Hoffmann, (B). L. Montgomery, J. Popovici, I. Iturbe-Ormaetxe, P. H. Johnson, (F). Muzzi, M. Greenfield, M. Durkan, Y. S. LEONG, AND. Pong, H. CookA J. Axford, A. M. Callahan, NL Kenny, (C). Omodei, E. A. McGraw, P. A. RyanS S. A. Ritchie, M. Turelli y S. L. O’Neill. “Successful establishment of Wolbachia in Aedes populations to suppress dengue transmission”. Nature, 25 in August of 2011. DOI:10.1038/nature10356.

Agenciasinc.es [en línea] Madrid(ESP): agenciasinc.es, 19 in July of 2012 [REF. 24 in August of 2011] Available on Internet: http://www.agenciasinc.es/Noticias/Mas-cerca-de-la-prevencion-del-dengue

Home HIV test: a breakthrough in AIDS fight

16 07 2012

The food and drug administration (FDA) of United States approved for the first time a home test for the detection of HIV.

La prueba involucra tomar una muestra de saliva y en menos de 40 minutos produce resultados.

The test involves taking a sample of saliva and less of 40 results in minutes.


The analysis, called OraQuick, requires a sample of saliva swab and can produce results in between 20 and 40 minutes.

As experts point out, It hopes that more people, that otherwise not be he would submit to the analysis, be detected the infection in the comfort and privacy of your home.

The national institutes of health (NIH) in United States calculated that of the 1,2 millions of people in this country who are HIV-positive, 20% do not know that it is infected with virus.

And these people, says the Agency, they are inadvertently play an important role in the spread of the virus.

In United States a 50.000 people are infected with HIV each year.

As he expressed the FDA, It is expected that the test, that you can buy in a few 30.000 stores and pharmacies, to reach these people.



For decades, several organizations and experts had requested approval of a home analysis.

But the matter had caused wide controversy.

Because of the stigma that has surrounded the HIV/AIDS epidemic from the beginning many people still think that undergo a test is exposed publicly to be catalogued in unwanted ways.

Others think incorrectly that the spread of HIV remains a death sentence and, It is therefore, “is better not to know”.

But studies have shown that an infected person who take antiretroviral treatment, not only can live a long and normal life, but also has 96% less risk of spreading the virus to another individual.

Critics also expressed that a home analysis would not provide a person the necessary support after learning that they were infected.

But as pointed out Tom Donohue, Director and founder of the Organization Who's Positive, who has been advocating the adoption of a home test for decades, the analysis “empower” many individuals.


Individual power

“This type of rapid test that leads to the House has not been without debate” expresses the official.

“But to be able to become the generation that put an end to the HIV/AIDS, We must move forward and use new ways to empower people to know their status”.

“A home test will put power in the hands of a person who wants to disclose their status to decide where it will be, who will advise you and will tell you how”, Adds.

The FDA stresses, However, that analysis is not 100% precise and, It is therefore, There is still the need to undergo testing in medical clinics to confirm the results.

Clinical trials home analysis showed that it can detect with 99,9% precision to individuals who do not have the virus.

However, among those who are HIV-positive, the result is 92% precise.

Also, as reported by Dr. Jonathan Mermin, Director of the CDC HIV unit, persons who receive a negative result be repeated the test three months later because that is the time it takes to develop antibodies to HIV can be detected by a scan.

The company that produces the test, OraSure Technologies, has not said what will be the cost of the equipment but confirmed that its price will be less than US$ 60.

He also expressed that the team will include an open telephone line 24 hours to help the user and will be directed to high-risk groups, including homosexual men, Black, Hispanics and sexually active adults.

The FDA approved the analysis for use by persons of 17 years or more and is expected to be available in the U.S. market in the coming months.


Bbc.co.uk [en línea] Londres (UK): bbc.co.uk, 16 de julio de 2012 [REF. 04 in July of 2012] Available on Internet: http://www.BBC.co.UK/Mundo/Noticias/2012/07/120704_vih_prueba_casera_men.shtml

CT in children could triple risk of brain cancer

12 07 2012

Expose a child to nuclear radiation from two or three CT scans (TC) the head you can triple your risk of developing brain cancer later in life, According to a study of 20 year published in the magazine The Lancet.

The investigation also revealed that a child exposed to radiation accumulated between five and 10 TC is three times more likely than a guy without that exposure to develop leukemia. Although the absolute risk of developing cancers after a CT scan yet is small, the researchers said that radiation doses should be kept to a minimum and use another option when you can. “It is well known that radiation can cause cancer, but there is a scientific debate about whether the relatively low doses of radiation, as those received from TC, they increase the risk of cancer and, If it is so, What size are these risks”, said researcher Amy Berrington de González.

“Ours is the first study that provides direct proof of a relationship (…) and also we were able to quantify that risk”, added the expert of the National Cancer Institute, part of the national institutes of health United States, who worked on the study with colleagues from Great Britain and Canada. The CT scan is a diagnostic technique that is often used in children with possible injury to the head.

The risk of developing cancer comes from ionizing radiation used in the TC. The risk of higher in children, you are more sensitive to radiation than adults. An alternative to the TC is the ultrasound, that does not include radiation, but it is less precise. In the current study, published in the medical journal The Lancet, researchers studied nearly a 180.000 patients who had undergone CT between 1985 and the 2002 in a British hospital.

The team extracted the amount and types of TC records and estimated the amount of radiation absorbed by the brain and the spinal medical. These data were crossed with cancer cases and deaths for the record national of the service of health of the United Kingdom between 1985 and the 2008. A total of 74 de 178.604 patients were diagnosed with leukemia and 135 de 17of587 they were diagnosed with brain cancer. For its part, David Spiegelhalter, expert understanding of risk at Cambridge University who did not participate directly in the research, He said that the results should be placed in context.

“This study suggests that you there are about 1 in 10.000 chances of a young person to develop leukemia by a CT scan in the next 10 years”, pointed out in a comment. “This is important, but a CT scan may be even more important for the evaluation to be performed”, added Spiegelhalter.


Abcdelbebe.com [en línea] Bogotá(COL): abcdelbebe.com, 12 in July of 2012 [REF. 07 in June of 2012] Available on Internet: http://www.abcdelbebe.com/Nino/24-48-Meses/Salud/tomografias-en-Ninos-podrian-triplicar-Riesgo-de-cancer-cerebral

Robots Get a Feel for the World at USC Viterbi

9 07 2012

Robots equipped with tactile sensor better able to identify materials through touch than humans, enabling more lifelike prosthetics.

a robot hand equipped with SynTouch's BioTac sensors.

a robot hand equipped with SynTouch’s BioTac sensors.


What does a robot feel when it touches something? Little or nothing until now. But with the right sensors, actuators and software, robots can be given the sense of feel – or at least the ability to identify materials by touch.

Researchers at the University of Southern California’s Viterbi School of Engineering published a study today in Frontiers in Neurorobotics showing that a specially designed robot can outperform humans in identifying a wide range of natural materials according to their textures, paving the way for advancements in prostheses, personal assistive robots and consumer product testing.

The robot was equipped with a new type of tactile sensor built to mimic the human fingertip. It also used a newly designed algorithm to make decisions about how to explore the outside world by imitating human strategies. Capable of other human sensations, the sensor can also tell where and in which direction forces are applied to the fingertip and even the thermal properties of an object being touched.

Like the human finger, the group’s BioTac® sensor has a soft, flexible skin over a liquid filling. The skin even has fingerprints on its surface, greatly enhancing its sensitivity to vibration. As the finger slides over a textured surface, the skin vibrates in characteristic ways. These vibrations are detected by a hydrophone inside the bone-like core of the finger. The human finger uses similar vibrations to identify textures, but the BioTac is even more sensitive.

When humans try to identify an object by touch, they use a wide range of exploratory movements based on their prior experience with similar objects. A famous theorem by 18th century mathematician Thomas Bayes describes how decisions might be made from the information obtained during these movements. Until now, however, there was no way to decide which exploratory movement to make next. The article, authored by Professor of Biomedical Engineering Gerald Loeb and recently graduated doctoral student Jeremy Fishel, describes their new theorem for this general problem as “Bayesian Exploration.”

Built by Fishel, the specialized robot was trained on 117 common materials gathered from fabric, stationery and hardware stores. When confronted with one material at random, the robot could correctly identify the material 95% of the time, after intelligently selecting and making an average of five exploratory movements. It was only rarely confused by a pair of similar textures that human subjects making their own exploratory movements could not distinguish at all.

So, is touch another task that humans will outsource to robots? Fishel and Loeb point out that while their robot is very good at identifying which textures are similar to each other, it has no way to tell what textures people will prefer. Instead, they say this robot touch technology could be used in human prostheses or to assist companies who employ experts to judge the feel of consumer products and even human skin.

Robots Get A Feel For The World from USC Viterbi on Vimeo.  Click here.

Loeb and Fishel are partners in SynTouch LLC, which develops and manufactures tactile sensors for mechatronic systems that mimic the human hand. Founded in 2008 by researchers from USC’s Medical Device Development Facility, the start-up is now selling their BioTac sensors to other researchers and manufacturers of industrial robots and prosthetic hands.

Another paper from this research group in the same issue of Frontiers in Neurorobotics describes the use of their BioTac sensor to identify the hardness of materials like rubber.

Original funding for development of the sensor was provided by the Keck Futures Initiative of the National Academy of Sciences to develop a better prosthetic hand for amputees. SynTouch also received a grant from the National Institutes of Health to integrate BioTac sensors with such prostheses. The texture discrimination project was funded by the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the material hardness study by the National Science Foundation.

Fishel just completed his doctoral dissertation in biomedical engineering based on the texture research. Loeb, also Director of the USC Medical Device Development Facility, holds 54 U.S. Patents and has published over 200 journal articles on topics ranging from cochlear implants for the deaf to fundamental studies of muscles and nerves.

Viterbi.usc.edu [en línea]  Los Angeles (USA): viterbi.usc.edu, 09 in July of 2012 [REF. 18 in June of 2012] Available on Internet: http://viterbi.usc.edu/news/news/2012/robots-get-a.htm

New Web Tool Helps Researchers Explore How the Genome Changes in Cancer

5 07 2012

Scientists at Memorial Sloan-Kettering have launched a new web-based tool to make information from large-scale genome-sequencing projects easier for researchers to navigate and explore.

The publicly accessible tool — called the cBio Cancer Genomics Portal — empowers cancer biologists and clinicians to translate complex data gathered about gene alterations into new cancer insights and clinical applications, the inventors write in a report published in the May issue of the journal Cancer Discovery.


Gynecologic oncologist Douglas Levine (left) and postdoctoral research fellow Petar Jelinic are using the new web tool to explore genetic changes that occur in ovarian cancer.

Gynecologic oncologist Douglas Levine (left) and postdoctoral research fellow Petar Jelinic are using the new web tool to explore genetic changes that occur in ovarian cancer.

“Now scientists can quickly extract the particular slice of information they need from genome databases without having to deal with the bulk of data that isn’t relevant to their research,” explains computational biologist Nikolaus Schultz, who led the development of the cBio Cancer Genomics Portal together with co-author Ethan Cerami. In addition, the resource facilitates the analysis of different types of data and presents the results in graphical summaries.

“Essentially, you can turn spreadsheets with millions of numbers into diagrams that reveal what happens to genes in cancer — without having to be an expert in genome analysis,” Dr. Schultz adds.

Information Overload

Investigators in the field have collaborated nationally and globally in recent years to catalog the myriad genetic changes that occur in tumors. For example, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) — a genome-sequencing project launched by the National Cancer Institute and the National Human Genome Research Institute in 2006 — is amassing genomic and clinical information from patients with more than 20 types of cancer.

A goal of these types of collaborations is to fast-track the understanding of the basic mechanisms of cancer — for example, by determining how certain alterations in the genome may initiate the formation of tumors, change the behavior of tumors after they have formed, or affect their response to therapy. Such knowledge could ultimately result in better methods to diagnose and control cancers, or prevent the disease from occurring in the first place.

But according to Chris Sander, Chair of the Sloan-Kettering Institute’s Computational Biology Program and one of the report’s authors, the speed of progress is now limited by the complex task of translating massive molecular data into insights that ultimately could benefit patients.

“The amount of detailed information from thousands of tumor samples stored in public genome databases is overwhelming and continues to grow rapidly as the result of national and international efforts,” Dr. Sander explains. When completed, The Cancer Genome Atlas will have mapped the genomes of more than 20,000 tumors, with diverse types of genetic changes documented for each sample.

“The community of cancer researchers is now tackling the challenge of translating the atlas into useful insights about the genes and physiological processes that are rewired in cancer, and the way these changes might affect disease outcome,” Dr. Sander adds.

Bridging a Knowledge Gap

The relationship between genes and cancer is inherently complicated. For example, the function of a gene can be affected by alterations of the DNA sequence, as well as by epigenetic changes, which leave the genetic code unchanged while modifying the activity of genes. Cancer is often the result of a complex mixture of genetic and epigenetic changes occurring in many genes over time.

To date, the new resource provides researchers easy access to five types of changes affecting thousands of cancer-associated genes, which have been mapped out in 17 diseases. The data has been generated by TCGA and by two independent Memorial Sloan-Kettering projects, which provided the first comprehensive analyses of gene changes in prostate cancer and sarcoma. Information generated in additional projects — including those coordinated by the International Cancer Genome Consortium — will soon be included.

“Our tool was designed to bridge a knowledge gap between computational and systems biologists on the one hand, and cancer researchers and disease experts on the other hand,” says Dr. Sander. “The feedback from the scientific community has been very enthusiastic.”

“It’s incredibly rewarding to know that more and more people are using our resource,” adds Dr. Schultz, “and to hear that it’s helping them capture the essence of what happens with the genome in cancer.”

This research was supported by the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health under award numbers NCI-U24CA143840 and NCI-R21CA135870.


Mskcc.org [en línea] NY (USA): mskcc.org, 05 in July of 2012 [REF. 21 in June of 2012] Available on Internet: http://www.mskcc.org/news/announcement/new-web-tool-helps-researchers-explore-how-genome-changes

Dr GENÉ: Libre elección de hospital en el sistema público

2 07 2012

Dr. Joan Gene Badia

Editor del Forum Clinic

Doctor of medicine and specialist in family and community medicine


Entre la obcecación de unos por introducir recortes y la de otros para evitarlos van pasando los días de la crisis. Surely I'm not the only one to think that we are missed another great opportunity to improve our health care system. It's a model that has not changed substantially since the 1980s and that today not attends properly the needs and expectations of citizens. We are not only older and suffer more chronic diseases, but also we are better informed. We want to be more independent. New technologies help us to connect and to participate more directly in the decisions that affect us.


The great change that requires our health system is not a purely technical question, but it is a true Adaptive challenge. The solution to the current health crisis will emerge from the collective intelligence of those affected, in this case, citizens and professionals.


For this reason I would like to contribute to the social debate the proposal that there is a free choice of specialist and hospital in the public sector. The measure is not capricious or due to ideological positions neoliberals. Unlike, It is a vital decision to advance in clinical safety and the efficiency of the system. It is surprising that all hospitals, even those who maintain a modern and liberal discourse of the management of public services, in the twenty-first century Catalonia, are comfortable with a captive customer environment designed for the society of the 1980s.


The report of the Central Catalan results1 It shows that there is between centres a great variability in income and the surgical mortality. As usual, the volume of clinical activity is associated with security, and the variability of the results alert on quality issues.


The demands of transparency and clinical safety demanded by today's society makes anachronistic this monopolistic situation of Catalan hospitals. If politicians do not react rapidly increasing information on the quality of the services that provide and allow patients to choose hospital, will be the same population which required by. It is a little understandable that a citizenry that demands a more direct democracy continue to accept for much longer that their health care come marked by bureaucratic and administrative criteria.



1. Generalitat of Catalunya. Report as of the Central of results. Departament de Salut Generalitat de Catalunya. ( Accessible the 29/6/2011 in www.Gencat.cat/salut/depsan/…/central_resultats_segoninforme_2011.PDF)