FDA issues final guidance on mobile medical applications

30 09 2013

The measure adopted supports the innovation and protect the safety of consumers

 

The food and drug administration of the United States Administration.UU. It issued final guidance for developing mobile medical applications, or "apps" as known in English, What are software programs that are used in mobile communication devices and perform the same functions as traditional medical devices. The guide describes the adapted perspective of the FDA for mobile applications.

 

The Agency intends to exercise its power of enforcement discretion (which means that it does not work the requirements of the Federal law on drugs and cosmetics) for the majority of mobile applications, since they pose minimal risk to consumers. The FDA intends to focus its regulatory oversight in a subset of mobile medical applications that have a higher risk for patients if they do not work properly.

 

Mobile applications have the potential to transform health care, allowing physicians to diagnose patients with potentially dangerous conditions of life outside the traditional health care settings, help consumers manage their own health and well-being, as well as to have access to useful information when and where needed it .

 

Mobile medical applications currently on the market can, for example, diagnose abnormal rhythms of the heart, turn smartphones into mobile ultrasound equipment or operate as the “central command ” a glucose meter used by a person with insulin dependent diabetes.

 

“Some mobile applications have minimal risks to consumers or patients, but others may have considerable risks if they are not working properly.  The FDA outlined regulation protects patients, While encouraging innovation”, said Dr. Jeffrey Shuren,Director of the Center for devices and radiological health FDA.

 

The FDA is focusing its supervision on mobile medical applications that:

 

  • they are intended to be used as an accessory for a regulated medical device – for example, an application that allows a health professional to make a specific diagnosis by a medical from a system of communication of images and file picture (PACS in English) on a smart phone or a mobile tablet ; o
  • transform a mobile platform in a medical device regulated – for example, an application that turns a smartphone into an electrocardiogram machine (ECG ) to detect abnormal heart rhythms or determine if a patient is suffering a heart attack .

 

Mobile medical applications that are subject to FDA review will be assessed using the same regulatory rules and the approach based on the risk that the Agency applies to other medical devices.

 

The Agency does not regulate the sale or the general use of consumer Smartphones or tablets,or regular distributors of mobile applications such as "iTunes App Store “or the” Play Google shop”.

 

The FDA received more than 130 comments for the proposed guidance issued in July of 2011. The people who responded overwhelmingly supported the measures proposed on the basis of the risk of FDA.

 

“We have worked hard to achieve an appropriate balance, only reviewing the mobile applications that have the potential for harm to consumers if they are not working properly “, Shuren said . “Our regulations for mobile medical apps people who develop applications provide the clarity necessary to continue developing these important products “.

 

The Agency has approved about 100 mobile medical applications in the last decade, around 40 It was authorized in the last two years.

 

Para más información:

 

The FDA, an agency of the Department of health and human services of the United States, It protects public health by ensuring the integrity, efficacy and safety of human and veterinary drugs, vaccines and other biological products for human use and medical devices. The Agency is also responsible for the protection and safety of the food supply of our nation, cosmetics, dietary supplements, products that emit radiation electronic, and regulate tobacco products.

 

 

 

Fda.gov [en línea] Silver Spring, MD (USA): FDA.gov, 30 de septiembre de 2013 [REF. 23 de septiembre de 2013] Available on Internet: http://www.FDA.gov/ NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm369676.htm



Even low levels of air pollution increases risk of cancer

26 09 2013

Prolonged exposure to particulate air pollution increases the risk of lung cancer even at levels below the European Union limit values, according to one of the largest studies of its kind published in The Lancet Oncology. In particular, there was a strong link to a type of lung cancer called adenocarcinoma, which frequently affect non-smokers.

 

The current study is based on the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), which is coordinated by the University of Utrech in the Netherlands. Researchers from several departments at Karolinska Institutet participated in the Swedish part of the study, which was coordinated by the Institute of Environmental Medicine. In all, researchers used data from about 313,000 people in nine European countries. Air pollution concentration of particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometre (PM2.5), and less than 10 micrometre (PM10) was estimated at the participants’ home addresses.

 

Sources of particulate matter air pollution include traffic, industry, and domestic heating. Participants were tracked for new lung cancer diagnoses in national and local cancer registries, and the researchers applied statistical modelling to separate the influence of air pollutants from other factors like smoking, diet, and occupation.

 

Among the participants, 2095 developed lung cancer during the average 13 years of follow up. The analysis showed that for every increase of 5 micrograms per cubic meter of PM2.5 pollution, the risk of lung cancer rose by 18%. For every increase of 10 micrograms per cubic meter in PM10 pollution the risk increased by 22%, with stronger effects indicated for adenocarcinomas.

 

According to the authors the association between particulate matter air pollution and the risk for lung cancer persisted also at concentrations below the existing European Union air quality limit values for PM10 (40 micrograms per cubic meter) and PM2.5 (25 micrograms per cubic meter).

 

This research was funded by the European Union’s Seventh Frame Program.

 

Publication:

 

Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Zorana J Andersen, Rob Beelen, Evangelia Samoli, Massimo Stafoggia, Gudrun Weinmayr, Barbara Hoffmann, Paul Fischer, Mark J Nada, Bert Brunekreef, Wei W Xun, Klea Katsouyanni, Konstantina Dimakopoulou, Johan Sommar, Bertil Forsberg, Lars Madsen, Anna Oudin, Bente Oftedal, Per E Schwarze, Per Nafstad, Ulf De Faire, Nancy L Pedersen, Claes-Göran Östenson, Laura Fratiglioni, Johanna Penell, Michal Korek, Göran Pershagen, Kirsten T Eriksen, Mette Sørensen, Anne Tjønneland, Thomas Ellermann, Chris Eatherington, Petra H P, Kees Meliefste, Meng Wang, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Timothy J Key, Kees de Hoogh, Hans Concin, Gabriele Nagel, Alice Vilier, Sara Grioni, Vittorio Krogh, Ming-Yi Tsai, Fulvio Ricceri, Carlotta Sacerdote, Claudia Galassi, Enrica Migliore, Andrea Ranzi, Giulia Cesaroni, Chiara Badaloni, Francesco Forastiere, Ibon Tamayo, Pilar Amiano, Miren Dorronsoro, Antonia Trichopoulou, Christina Bamia, Paolo Vineis & Gerard Hoek

Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)

The Lancet Oncology, Online 10 Julio 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016

 


 

Ki.se [en línea] Solna (SUE): ki.se, 26 de septiembre de 2013 [REF. 10 in July of 2013] Available on Internet: http://ki.se/ki/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=130&a=166034&l=en&newsdep=130



Study reveals target for drug development for chronic jaw pain disorder

23 09 2013

Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD) is the most common form of oral or facial pain, affecting over 10 million Americans. The chronic disorder can cause severe pain often associated with chewing or biting down, and lacks effective treatments.

 

In a study in mice, researchers at Duke Medicine identified a protein that is critical to TMJD pain, and could be a promising target for developing treatments for the disorder. Their findings are published in the August issue of the journal PAIN®.

Aside from cases related to trauma, little is known about the root cause of TMJD. The researchers focused on TRPV4, an ion channel protein that allows calcium to rapidly enter cells, and its role in inflammation and pain associated with TMJD.

 

“TRPV4 is widely expressed in sensory neurons found in the trigeminal ganglion, which is responsible for all sensations of the head, face and their associated structures, such as teeth, the tongue and temporomandibular joint,” said senior study author Wolfgang Liedtke, M.D., PhD, associate professor of neurology and neurobiology at Duke. “This pattern and the fact that TRPV4 has been found to be involved in response to mechanical stimulation made it a logical target to explore.”

 

The researchers studied both normal mice and mice genetically engineered without the Trpv4 gene (which produces TRPV4 channel protein). They created inflammation in the temporomandibular joints of the mice, and then measured bite force exerted by the mice to assess jaw inflammation and pain, similar to how TMJD pain is gauged in human patients. Given that biting can be painful for those with TMJD, bite force lessens the more it hurts.

 

The mice without the Trpv4 gene had a smaller reduction in bite force — biting with almost full force — suggesting that they had less pain. In normal mice there was more TRPV4 expressed in trigeminal sensory neurons when inflammation was induced. The increase in TRPV4 corresponded with a greater reduction in bite force.

 

The researchers also administered a compound to normal mice that blocked TRPV4, and found that inhibiting TRPV4 also led to smaller reductions in bite force, similar to the effects of the mice engineered without the Trpv4 gene.

 

Surprisingly, the researchers found comparable bone erosion and inflammation in the jaw tissue across all mice, regardless whether the mice had TRPV4 or not.

 

“Remarkably, the damage is the same but not the pain,” Liedtke said. “The mice that had the most TRPV4 appeared to have the most pain, but they all had similar evidence of temporomandibular joint inflammation and bone erosion in the jawbone as a consequence of the inflammation.”

 

The results suggest that TRPV4 and its expression in trigeminal sensory neurons contribute to TMJD pain in mice. Given the lack of effective treatments for this chronic pain disorder, TRPV4 may be an attractive target for developing new therapies.

 

In addition to Liedtke, Duke study authors include senior pain researcher Yong Chen, Ji Hee Hong, Suk Hee Lee, Puja K. Parekh and Carlene Moore of the Department of Neurology; Amy L. McNulty, Nicole E. Rothfusz and Farshid Guilak of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery; Fan Wang of the Department of Cell Biology/Neurobiology; and Andrea B. Taylor of the Departments of Community and Family Medicine and Evolutionary Anthropology. Susan H. Williams of the Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine at Ohio University and Robert W. Gereau IV of the Department of Anesthesiology at Washington University in St. Louis also contributed to this research.

 

The research was supported by the National Institutes of Health (DE018549, DE19440, DE19440S1, NS48602, AR048182 and DE018549-S); Duke Institute for Brain Sciences; Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University; and Keimyung University School of Medicine in South Korea.

 

 

dukehealth.org [en línea] Durham, NC (USA): dukehealth.org, 23 de septiembre de 2013 [REF. 01 in August of 2013] Available on Internet: http://www.dukehealth.org/health_library/news/study-reveals-target-for-drug-development-for-chronic-jaw-pain-disorder



Nigel Marsh: How to approach equilibrium idea with balance?

19 09 2013

The equilibrium idea, says Nigel Marsh, It is too important to be left in the hands of the employer. In TEDxSydney, Marsh establishes an ideal day balanced between the time with the family, personal time and productivity - and offers a certain poignant encouragement to succeed.

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Nigel Marsh is the author of “Fat, Forty and Fired” and “Overworked and Underlaid.” I ’ s the Regional Group CEO of Young and Rubicam Brands for Australia & New Zealand. In 2005 I came second last in the Bondi to Bronte ocean race.

 

Ted.com [en línea] Sydney (AUS): ted.com, 19 de septiembre de 2013 [REF. may of 2010] Available on Internet:http://talks/nigel_marsh_how_to_make_work_life_balance_work.html www.ted.com/

 



Testicle size ' link to father role’

16 09 2013

A link between the size of a father’s testicles and how active he is in bringing up his children has been suggested by scientists.

 

Researchers at Emory University, US, said those with smaller testicles were more likely to be involved with nappy changing, feeding and bath time.

They also found differences in brain scans of fathers looking at images of their child, linked to testicle size.

But other factors, such as cultural expectations, also played a role.

Levels of promiscuity and testicle size are strongly linked in animals, those with the largest pair tending to mate with more partners.

The researchers were investigating an evolutionary theory about trade-offs between investing time and effort in mating or putting that energy into raising children. The idea being that larger testicles would suggest greater commitment to creating more children over raising them.

The study, in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, looked at the relationship between testicle size and fatherhood in 70 men who had children between the ages of one and two.

The team at Emory University in Atlanta performed brain scans while the men were shown pictures of their children.

It showed those with smaller testicles tended to have a greater response in the reward area of the brain than those with a larger size.

MRI scans showed a three-fold difference between the volumes of the smallest and largest testicles in the group.

Those at the smaller end of the spectrum were also more likely, according to interviews with the man and the mother, to be more active in parenting duties.

One of the researchers, Dr James Rilling, told the BBC: “It tells us some men are more naturally inclined to care-giving than others, but I don’t think that excuses other men. It just might require more effort for some than others.”

The exact nature of any link is not clear.

The researchers believe the size of the testicles, probably through the hormone testosterone, is affecting behaviour. But it is not clear if the process of having a baby may have some effect on the father.

“We know, for instance, that testosterone levels go down when men become involved fathers,” said Dr Rilling.

Further studies, involving analysing the size before and after becoming a father, are still needed.

Cultural and societal expectations on the role of the father are also not accounted for in the study.

All of the men were from the Atlanta area so the relative impact of society and biology has not been measured.

 

 

Bbc.co.uk [en línea] London (UK): BBC.co.UK, 16 de septiembre de 2013 [REF. 10 de septiembre de 2013] Available on Internet: http://news/health-24016988 www.bbc.co.uk/



Forget about unnecessary medical examinations

12 09 2013

Learn about check-ups carried out excessively elderly of 50 years and probably not need if they are healthy

Más allá del costo, algunas pruebas revelan resultados anormales, incluso en ocasiones cuando el paciente está bien.

Beyond the cost, some tests show abnormal results, even on occasions when the patient is well.

 

It has become a habit of surprising frequency, the constant application of examinations and tests –before calls “auxiliary diagnostic”–, not only to rule out or confirm what the clinician suspects, but also as a first approach to diagnosis, bypassing the traditional manoeuvres based on questioning and physical examination. Not only that, It is common now that it is not only the doctor who request them but the same patient who suggest it.

This is not only confined to the laboratory and Imaging tests, It is also applicable for different types of procedures for the purpose of treatment.

With advertising which in recent days received interventions you bloody with motives of prevention, that is to say, practiced in healthy people but with risk of illness, It was time to inform doctors, patients and institutions involved in health care, the advantages and disadvantages of this way of acting and the uselessness and dangers of certain tests and medical procedures.

It has thus considered it as the Foundation of the American Society of internal medicine (ABIM) and the important magazine dedicated to the defense of the consumer, Consumer Reports, through the campaign “Choosing Wisely” (Choosing wisely), launched at the beginning of last year.

So they have been analyzed more than 130 tests and procedures for 25 societies of specialists that have more of 725 thousand members, 90 These tests were added just three months ago.

For this purpose several lists of various specialities which include tests complied, treatments and services that are unnecessary or at least its relevance should be discussed between doctor and patient.

According to the Foundation, the purpose of this initiative is to keep only those tests that:

-Are supported by evidence.

-Do not duplicate other tests or procedures.

-Do not cause damage.

-They are truly needed.

 

Stress test

As an outstanding example of one of the unnecessary procedures, is the famous stress test, part of the “check-up” offering different hospitals and clinics and that is exercised on a treadmill while it monitors the work of the heart. It could be a test of usefulness in people who have symptoms that indicate a heart problem, but not in those who feel well and are asymptomatic.

In around the 15 per cent of occasions, the stress test suggests heart problem when there (false positive), which can lead not only to restlessness and anxiety, but also to the apparent need for additional procedures, some of them may pose risk (P. Skerrett, Harvard Health).

 

Unnecessary procedures and tests

Below is a selection of tests and unnecessary procedures, extracted from the lists mentioned by Harvard Health Letter, Maggie Fox, NBC News, Forbes. Pharma & Healthcare:

-For acute sinusitis, not order CT (TC) sinuses or prescribe antibiotics indiscriminately.

-Do not send x-rays for back pain drops during the first 6 weeks, unless there are obvious signs of neurologic compromise.

-No x-ray - or other images- in the case of headache (headache) hassle-free.

-Not to repeat the detection of colon cancer and straight (by any method) up 10 years after a colonoscopy - high quality- negative in average risk individuals.

-Not carry out tests of cardiac imaging in low risk patients.

-Do not induce delivery or carry out caesarean section before the 39 full months of pregnancy, unless there is a medical reason for this.

-Do not feed tube for patients with advanced dementia.

-Yearly in women over PAP is not required of 30 years or less than 21, unless there was a prior abnormal result.

-The detection of osteoporosis by any women under x-ray examination is not required of 65 years or less men of 70.

-Do not perform a computed tomography in children with a slight blow to the head.

-Electroencephalography in patients with recurrent headache is not required.

-Do not use solutions with antibiotics in case of conjunctivitis.

-Scans are not useful PET or CAT type for detection of cancer in healthy people.

In the words of Dr. Christine Cassel President and CEO of the ABIM Foundation: “Millions of people are increasingly aware that, as far as health care is concerned, more isn't necessarily better”.

By: Enrique Goldbard agency reform

 

laopinion.com [en línea] The Angeles, CA (USA): laopinion.com, 12 de septiembre de 2013 [REF. 6 de septiembre de 2013] Available on Internet: http://Skip-tests-doctors-unnecessary www.laopinion.com/



Subcutaneous implantable cardiac defibrillator ('S DCI')

9 09 2013

It includes a cable located under the skin along the left side of the sternum and would greatly reduce the risk of death in patients at high risk of heart attack.

They develop a type of defibrillator to, implanted under the skin, It can detect dangerously abnormal heart rhythms and administer shock to restore normal rhythm without wires that touch the heart. At least this is what explains a new study published in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.

 

This subcutaneous implantable cardiac defibrillator (´S-ICD´) includes a cable located under the skin along the left side of the sternum. It also has electric wires inserted into the blood vessels that go to the heart of the affected.

 

These can greatly reduce the risk of death in patients with heart failure risk. However, experts are inserted the new device without x-ray Guide, so"reduces concerns about broken lead wires, damage to the vessels, infection and scars that impede the removal of the traditional device".

 

"The defibrillation has repeatedly proven to be a great asset to prolong the lives of heart patients, but there are still some risks that face. This new system was developed along of 12 ' years of combinations of some of the best aspects of the implanted DAI and traditional external defibrillators ', said one of the experts.

 

The new device was 100% effective in detecting and consistently revert ventricular fibrillation. The device is already available in Europe and New Zealand from 2009, and it was approved last year by the FAD in the United States. Experts warn that it is not a substitute of other defibrillators although it is qualified as "something perfect for everyone".

 

 

Hechosdehoy.com [en línea] Madrid (ESP): hechosdehoy.com, 02 de septiembre de 2013 [REF. 27 in August of 2013] Available on Internet:http://crean-un-desfibrilador-implantable-sin-cables-que-restaura-el-ritmo-cardiaco-29668.htm www.hechosdehoy.com/



Applications of mathematics in medicine

5 09 2013

The application of mathematics in medical education is very broad, Thus for example are the dosage (amount and way of use of medication), Pharmacology pene (mechanism of action of a drug and concentrations), Radiology (Remember that images diagnostic are likely to be measured in two and even three dimensions), the clinical laboratory (their values are expressed in numbers). Wherever you want you will find math, in the case of calculating the date for delivery, There take the date of last ruler, the day sumaras you 7 and a month sumaras you 9, and always get 40 weeks of pregnancy or what is the same 280 días (40 SEM. x 7 days). Examples are many.

 

Mathematics have application in all aspects of human life. In medicine it has to be dealing with doses that have to be calculated according to the weight, the size of each individual. If you don't know the least math, the patient is at risk of getting killed by an accidental dose. And that still happens in real life.

 

 

IMPORTANCE OF MATHEMATICS IN MEDICINE

 

To better understand the dynamics of medicine, It is convenient to take into account a historical perspective. Let us remember that the Western conception of the world and the system of values until the 16th and 17TH centuries, they had based the Greek doctrines and Christian theology.

During the Renaissance, to solve the problems in major disasters of various kinds were, as the epidemic diseases, they resorted to the "Science" to give different answers and solutions to the already traditional.

This science is based largely on the ideas and postulates of the philosopher and French mathematician Rene Descartes (1596-1650) and the English mathematician and philosopher Isaac Newton (1642-1727).

Descartes gave importance to the dualism (body material and immaterial spirit) and the mechanical character of outward nature, considering the human body as a simple but enormously clever body.

Newton later developed a theory of the world; He discovered the law of universal gravitation, laws based on the geometry of Euclid, the equations for the calculation .

In this conceptual framework of space and absolute time, We considered certain particles movement highlights, as the atoms that mathematically obeyed physical laws, in such a way that you could follow, and calculating the effects of a phenomenon or thing known. On the basis of the above, compared to the world with a clock, instrument that lot of phenomena could be understood, not to say all.

The scientific paradigm had a deterministic vision and a predictive capacity. These ideas gave rise to the scientists and technicians calculate, massaged and controlled the observable world in ways not thought before the Cartesian revolution. Thus arose (in the last hundred years) under the human interest, large bridges, dams, beam x, aircraft and other advances of civilization.

Today the scientific conception rejects clock «philosophy», as there is a systematic conception: the whole is divided into elements and these are interconnected, but not necessarily as a chain of causes and effects.

Euclidean geometry, based on evidence and deductions, the man studied and used by about two millennia, It is out of time; as it applies to nature, mathematics based on calculus and differential equations are only approximations to the real world, less important when it comes to explaining the reason for the composition of proteins, the size of the trees or driving in the nervous system.

Currently there are «new» mathematics, they have qualitative and quantitative characteristics that have resulted in the topology, the theory of knots, chaos and fractal geometry theory, all related to the complexity of linear systems. Such terms, with new connotations are giving rise to a new scientific revolution.

TOPOLOGY

The topology is a branch of mathematics, It occupies of the profile and the shape of three-dimensional entities, Since the molecules of proteins to the galaxies.

The DNA, enzymes, monoclonal antibodies, antigens, amino acids and lymphocytes, are a few of the proteins in the body, whose functions are determined largely by their profile and form.

The topology therefore, It has wide application in biology and medicine. It is a basic tool in the synthesis and development of a new generation of Diagnostics, drugs and vaccines.

THE KNOT THEORY

The theory of knots, as its name implies, reduced to algebraic equations, used in the study of DNA configurations, any of the countless types of knots, including the Gordian. The theory of knots helps biologists understand how DNA begins to develop as string, to tie during replication and combinations and how function enzymes that give rise to this activity.

The main observation has been that the DNA is knotted and detangles; It is chained and fires himself; If these changes do not occur properly the cells die.

CHAOS THEORY

Natural systems of any scale are frequently steep and complex behaviors when they are under the influence of powerful forces of nature. Cyclones, storms and cataracts are clear examples; There are other examples in Astrophysics, plasma and chemical physics; the riots are in social sciences; in public health the emergence and spread of epidemics and in biology cardiac arrhythmias and neoplasms. Examples more inherent to man in daily life are violent vibrations and problems that may arise to put some pressure on the accelerator of a car; Another example are the distortions caused in the sound due to the excessive volume on a stereo device. These are non-linear and chaotic phenomena.

Thus, nature is full of examples of non-linear behavior, which is the rule, not the exception. Why science?, including medicine, they have remained attached to the concepts of linearity and predictability? Before answering the question, We will refer to the fractal geometry.

FRACTAL GEOMETRY

A doctor called Ary L. Goldberg, Deputy Director of the laboratory of arrhythmias of the Beth Israel Hospital in Boston, said on 1986, that interdependence in medicine between the physiology, Mathematics and physics is a sinequa non in a few years.

Literally we are in a new frontier, a new class of phenomena that are showing. When there are forks and abrupt and chaotic changes in behavior, is that the conventional linear models lose their importance». In 1986 the word fractal does not appear in textbooks of Physiology, is up to 1996 When mentioned it all the books of Physiology. Dr. Golberg was already referring to fractal geometry.

If some rules are developed, and in parallel to the same, are used in computer simulation and graphics, the complex structures of natural phenomena can be captured.

For example, to make the replica of a tree (non-existent), either, a set of trees, It would be necessary to resort to 2000 bytes of memory and appropriate rules. Thus, as it occurs in nature, each tree in the joint imagery would be different from other.

Actual and potential applications in medicine are obvious. The central and peripheral nervous system, the cardiovascular system, the kidneys, the lungs and other organs and tissues, all of them are fractal systems.

High speed computers and the new mathematical methodologies such as topology, the theory of knots, the theory of chaos or non-linearity, and fractal geometry, they are the means and tools to consider the phenomena of otherwise.

The deep and wide knowledge about life processes are expressing thanks to the new uses of mathematics.

Unfortunately only a small group of science theoreticians, physical, chemicals, biologists and one group even less of neurologists, cardiologists, Oncologists and geneticists, they understand and are interested in the important role that mathematics will have in the future of medicine.

This situation is partly due, that there is an abstract and unintelligible language that separates the rich and fertile modern mathematics of ordinary human knowledge.

But fortunately this discipline is being studied by medical researchers. An article in NATURE, November of 1987, It concerns the importance of non-linear mathematics in cardiac Physiology.

The application of non-linear mathematics to study complex dynamic phenomena in cardiology, it contrasts with the biophysical methods used to characterize the currents and ion channels on which download heart activity. Such dynamic phenomena can be described in any excitable tissue, is brain, intestines, heart or uterus, or even in all media nonliving chemicals that can spread excitement.

At the Conference held in August of 1988, by the American Mathematical Society, It was stated: "Recent advances in mathematical sciences suggest that there will be a significant potential increase in terms of fundamental advances in the life sciences, It will depend to a large extent, mathematical modelling and computing. The structuralist biologists will become engineers in genetics, capturing the geometry of complex macromolecules through supercomputers and simulating interactions of molecules in the search for agents with biological activity».

Using computational methods biologists may be presented on a computer screen the geometry of a common cold virus, a polyhedral intricate profile of extraordinary beauty and fascinating geometric shape, showing a surface with molecular fingerprints that will study biological aspects.

Geneticists are making enormous efforts to map the entire human genome, However, contemporary algorithms applied to equations in fluid dynamics is used in many laboratories of Physiology, to determine phenomena such as turbulence in the blood caused by swollen or particles of cholesterol heart valves.

Nowadays mathematics has cannot be conceived as numbers, matter and space, they have become a science of models and the application for adjustment among them.

Similar to what happened in the physical sciences, Mathematics begin to be the source of learning and change in the life sciences and health.

The national institutes of health have computing resources dedicated to molecular biology, as well as mathematical biology laboratories, based on biological and technical aspects to diagnose cancer and also make the diagnosis of other degenerative chronic conditions of economic development, thus freeing patients of risks, such as States of shock by the use of contrast substances, it triggered moments after application, allergic and occasionally phenomena, in the worst case, death. Example of this type of risk are the angiocardiogramas in the patients studied coronary (Angina Pectoris), among others, that it can be solved with magnetic resonance imaging.

Using these examples, I wanted to publicize the importance of mathematics in the theory and practice of medicine:

Cured a liver cancer through a therapy based on a mathematical formula.

Spanish researchers have managed to cure a patient evicted with liver cancer and open a line of treatment “very important” If after a trial with more patients confirmed its effectiveness.

The theoretical physical teacher Antonio Bru, author of the work in which spent twelve years working, He said that the good results obtained with the cured patient expected to be confirm in a subsequent trial, It must be approved by the health authorities.

The results of the therapy, to be published Tuesday in the journal “Journal of Clinical Research”, they are based on stimulation of the bone marrow to increase the production of neutrophils (one of the five types of leukocytes from the blood), using drugs that are already used in the market, Although for another indication.

Therapy focuses on the stimulation of the bone marrow to increase the production of neutrophils, using drugs that are already used in the market.

The therapy is based on a mathematical theory, BRU explained that the therapy worked and that is based on a mathematical theory, so expected that new results can be obtained, After verification of its effectiveness in a wider trial expected to be completed in a couple of years.

The research of Bru, Professor of applied mathematics at the Universidad Complutense, It has focused on the study of the growth of solid tumors and the pursuit of a therapy to stop the tumor.

After proven mathematical essays and his experiments in animals was tried in a patient he was terminally, that doctors gave less than two months of life and that, After a few months and without hardly side effects treatment, has been able to return to his work as Professor of Institute.

In addition to Bru participated in the trial Sonia Albertos, the service of digestive of the Hospital Clínico San Carlos, and Fernando Garcia-HOZ, digestive service Hospital Ramon y Cajal in Madrid.

Garcia-HOZ said that the treatment has been made at the Valley clinic in Madrid and that, Although we must be cautious because it's a single case, Opens “a new approach to research” There now to see if it is repeated with a greater number of patients.

 

MATHEMATICS IN NUTRITION

Nutrition is the biological process in which bodies assimilate food and fluids necessary for operation, the growth and maintenance of the vital functions, a nutritionist is the person who studies the requirements of food which you have in the day and a meal plan.

Like everything in the nutrition they are portions, fractions and percentages, mathematics is important, only to a basic level, that is to say, algebra and basic operations.

Some examples of situations in which the mathematical calculation applies are varied, but they are mainly used in the calculation of the daily nutritional requirements of a person, taking into account its weight, his stature and his physical activity, that is to say, in this process the fractions are applied, the percentages and a bit of algebra.

Moreover also be applied mathematics in the dietary recommendations for people wanting to lose weight, Since your calorie intake should be less than that used daily, so that in this way the body fat reserves are used, in the same way, It is necessary to know their activities daily and through tables add the total calories for the day, to design a diet, so then fractions and percentages are used.

An important example where everything is based on mathematics is when you need to control the diet of an athlete's performance as a body builder, a practitioner of fitness or other sports such as Triathlon, cycling, among others, because everyone needs a high consumption of protein to repair muscle, certain amount of carbohydrates, which will vary according to the intensity of the sport and above all the total consumption of calories a day, as in the case of the bodybuilder is much greater than that of an average person.

 

 

Matematicanutricion.blogspot.com.es [en línea] El Agustino (PER): matematicanutricion.blogspot.com.es, 05 de septiembre de 2013 [REF. ? de ? of ?] Available on Internet:http://matematicanutricion.blogspot.com.es/p/aplicaciones-de-la-matematica-en-la.html



Dr J. Gene: Patients should be involved in the development of clinical practice guidelines

2 09 2013

Joan Gene Badia

Médico de Familia

CAPSE-ICS- University of Barcelona

 

 

Clinical practice guidelines are the basic instrument to transfer the cooking generated by biomedical research to clinical practice. Are complex processing. They become scientific evidence specific recommendations whereas in addition the needs and the availability of resources of each environment. So far they have been basically developed by professionals, but we are becoming more aware that we must incorporate the patients in this process. This is a common practice in prestigious international agencies as the NICE (1) (National Institute of clinical excellence) British, and it should also be a common routine in our country. Unfortunately we too anchored in medical paternalism and are more backward than our European neighbours in health literacy of the population (2). But it is encouraging that more and more patients begin to say: “Nothing for me without me”. Encouraged that they wish to participate in all aspects that affect them, especially in the development of clinical practice guidelines since these instruments mark the type of care you will receive.

To advance this line, Health Guide, the Organization in charge of the Ministry of health clinical practice guidelines, Social services and equality has just published the methodological manual to incorporate patients developing clinical practice guidelines. The document (3) It shows that they can and should be involved in all phases of development of the Guide, Since the review of the scientific evidence to the making of recommendations. Its role is crucial since it contributes both the patient's perspective to address the aspects that interest them and care, to generate recommendations based on their values and preferences.

It is important that this document will serve to modify the process of elaboration of guidelines and clinical recommendations in our country. Only thus we will continue advancing in more adequate attention to the real needs of patients.

 

Bibliography:

1)     NICE (National Institute of clinical excellencewww.nice.org.uk

2)     forumclinicWorryingly, the level of literacy in Spanish population health
blogs/blogdeleditor/espreocupanteelniveldealfabetizacinensaluddelapoblacinespaola www.forumclinic.org/

3)     Working group involvement of patients in the developing deGPC. Involvement of patients in the development of guidelines in clinical practice. Methodological manual. Clinical practice in the NHS guidelines. Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad . Ministry of health, Social services and equality
www.guiasalud.es/ emanuales/pacientes/documentos/manual_pacientes.pdf