BENEFITS OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN HEALTH

30 12 2013

A study conducted over eight countries found that the 70 % of those surveyed they would be comfortable using toilet sensors, sensors in medicine bottles or swallowed health monitors to collect personal health information.

 

The survey, carried out by the market research agency Penn Schoen Berland and sponsored by Intel, It also showed that the majority of people believes that technological innovation represents the most viable solution to cure fatal diseases, even more to increase the number of doctors or increase the research budget.

Also, respondents said to be comfortable with the idea of forming part of remote reviews via teleconferencing. In fact, the 72 % He said to support the idea of connecting remotely with your doctor through communication technologies and most feel comfortable using technology from home in your own body instead of going to the doctor.

More than half of the respondents (57 %) believes that, eventually, hospitals will become obsolete and most of the 80 % He said that they would share information anonymously to reduce health care costs and improve services and treatments.

Intel It says that the study reveals that most of the people want personalized health services, based on their own behaviour and biology, which provides the possibility of obtaining healthcare in anywhere, anytime.

 

 

Cioal.com [en línea] Doral, FL (USA): cioal.com, 30 de diciembre de 2013 [REF. 11 in December of 2013] Available on Internet: http://2013/12/11/beneficios-de-la-innovacion-tecnologica-en-la-salud/ www.cioal.com/



The end of the clinic?

26 12 2013

The marvels of medical technology, the presence of lawyers between doctors and patients in order to settle disputes, the arrogance of health insurance, information, sometimes misinformation, offered in “Medical Internet” and the weight of the pharmaceutical companies are, today, omnipresent and omniscient factors in medicine. The sum of these factors has degraded the figure of the doctor, the intimate work of medicine - the relationship doctor-patient- and reduced to the clinic to a minimum. The detriment in the clinical exercise comes from the aforementioned elements, and of increasingly scarce attachment and interest by teachers and academic programs in favor of the clinic.

Medical technology is glamorous and very profitable from the financial perspective; Lawyers looking for juicy economic gains for the sick; insurance tie the hands of doctors, and they suffocate and mislead patients; “Medical Internet” confused, it frightens and sowing mistrust and pharmaceutical seduce some doctors, and, since they spend a lot on advertising they more expensive drugs, In addition to offering products not always as good as they claim. You can do little against that hard and complex Web clinic.

The clinical word comes from the Greek kline, bed or bed. Old teachers taught medicine at the foot of the bed. These teachers repeated endlessly, “the best teachers are the sick”. The sick are irreplaceable guides. Listen to them, touch them and ask the necessary tends to be sufficient to locate the diagnostic. Beside the sick there is good medicine; beside the bed it is known what happens to the person. The clinic practice, Preview, touch, To watch, It tends to disappear precisely because the medical priorities have changed. The intrusion of the factors indicated in the first paragraph has replaced the essential patient-physician relationship by the increasingly indispensable studies of laboratory and Cabinet, ever more dazzling and accurate.

Thirty or more years have passed since that Franz Ingelfinger, Editor of the “New England Journal of Medicine”, one of the most prestigious medical journals, He warned that if the lawyers are interposed between doctors and patients, medicine, and especially the relationship between patients and doctors, would suffer serious consequences. Shortly afterwards, Thomas Szasz, Professor Emeritus at Syracuse University, and one of the promoters of the term “medicalization of life”, He criticized the influence of modern medicine in society. Szasz, admirable iconoclast, was blunt; his stance is rotunda: “Theocracy is rule of God, democracy is the rule of the majority and the rule farmacracia of doctors and medicine”. Both Ingelfinger and Szasz gave the blank. The farmacracia, medical technocracy, and the abogacracia - language has limits-, they are factors that threaten the clinical exercise. The problem is immense and it is unlikely that this trend is reversed.

Medical technology, lawyers, “Medical Internet”, medical insurance and pharmaceutical companies, they make up an impossible-to-overcome front. Each one of them, separately, is sufficient to push the clinic; their sum is deadly. Those scourges, Live disinterest of the programmes by the clinic, and the ever-smaller contact between young doctors and patients are clinic-death certificate.

The growing dissatisfaction of patients comes, above all, lack of listening to the doctor, that is to say, by its wiry adherence by the clinic. When one speaks of patients and diseases, There should not be many differences between the maneuvers of the old physicians, it hit your ear on the back of the patients to listen to them and thus to determine the origin of evil, with the white of the contemporary clinical paper, whose primary obligation should be listening to the narration that the patient will make your wrong. Modern stethoscopes are better than that realized Teófilo Laennec (1761-1826), who, before inventing the stethoscope, hit your ear to the body of the sick.

There is no why surrender to the onslaught that suffers the clinic. There is no why be deceived: as well as old time remains similar to the new time, the sick yesterday are very similar to the today. Everyone wants to hear them. All think and know that healing begins are through words, his words. The words that construct the literature of disease and make up seeds of the clinic. If the doctors are not able to reinvent the listening, back and working beside the bed, the clinic, and the relationship between doctors and patients, they will continue to deteriorate.

(Doctor)

 

BY: ARNOLDO KRAUS

Elsiglodetorreon.com.MX [en línea] Mexico DF (MEX): elsiglodetorreon.com.MX, 26 de diciembre de 2013 [REF. 15 in December of 2013] Available on Internet: http://www.elsiglodetorreon.com.mx/ noticia/943340.fin-de-la-clinica.html



Psiconnect: platform of communication in Psychiatry

23 12 2013

The project, named Psiconnect, Prometheus earned one of the scholarships of the fifth edition of the program

 

Isabel de la Torre Díez

Isabel of the ten Tower

 

Psychiatry is a speciality in which ICT are not still very present, Despite having a great potential of application. For this reason, the student of the University of Valladolid Diego Velasco Morejon has developed a platform software whose purpose is communication among medical staff, caregivers and patients with psychiatric problems. The project, named Psiconnect, Prometheus at the University of Valladolid has obtained one of the scholarships of the fifth edition of the program, whose objective is to protect the results of projects and innovative prototypes developed by students of the educational institution.

 

The tutor's work, the Professor of the Department of signal theory and communications and engineering telematics Isabel of the ten Tower, explained in words collected by DiCYT that today "many people have depressions as psychiatric problems or problems of schizophrenia", and however Psychiatry "is a specialty where there are hardly any social platforms".

 

Hence the idea of developing Psiconnect, an online platform "for communication between psychiatrists, caregivers and patients in direct, "distance and sharing all kinds of information and resources relating to Psychiatry". "It's providing a service of communication in a sector as that of Psychiatry where a platform of this kind is very much needed. It is also a tool that, used in an organization, It can be very useful both for medical personnel and patient and with a great projection of future", ensures.

 

The platform, available both for fixed devices such as mobile, It aims to ultimately provide "comfort and effectiveness" users, allowing the consultation of second medical opinions, the distance solution of doubts among caregivers and between patients, and even the diagnosis and treatment of distance.

 

"The platform allows both make therapies online as a direct follow-up of patients with psychiatric problems. Among the services offered are news, where can medical staff share publications; a resources section, which books or articles can both share in online and physical version, a series of discussion forums, Messaging, chat and video call, to produce therapies online can be through the platform in any fixed or mobile device", accurate.

As pointed out the tutor, based on this work the student has carried out the platform, Diego Velasco Morejon, It is currently in the United Kingdom working in a software development project, in particular in the field of mobile applications.

 

Protection of results

 

A total of 11 initiatives developed by students have been protected by patent or intellectual property in the fifth edition of the fellowship programme Prometheus at the University of Valladolid, whose purpose is the protection of innovative projects developed by students at the University. Of the total of 11 selected projects, six (three of the University of Valladolid, two of Segovia and Palencia Campus campus) they correspond to software and have been entered in the register of intellectual property; while five (four of the University of Valladolid and one of the campuses of Palencia) they are patent-protected works.

 

Each of the Prometeo grants is endowed of 500 euros (in the case of the software) and 1.000 EUR (in the case of patents). In addition to the protection of works, students receive specific training in the field of industrial and intellectual property. Prometheus scholarship program is part of the knowledge transfer project University (T-CUE), financed by the Junta de Castilla y León in the framework of the University-company strategy 2008-2013, and coordinated by the Foundation universities and higher education in Castilla y León (Fuescyl).

 

 

Salamanca24horas.com [en línea] Salamanca (ESP): salamanca24horas.com, 23 de diciembre de 2013 [REF. 15 in December of 2013] Available on Internet: http://local/100220-una-plataforma-para-comunicar-a-medicos-cuidadores-y-pacientes-con-problemas-psiquiatricos www.salamanca24horas.com/



Pediatría: Biomarcadores pronóstico en niños en estado crítico

19 12 2013

A study carried out in the Pediatric ICU of Hospital Gregorio Marañón and the HUCA links the level of various biomarkers with mortality risk.

 

Achieve a rapid and accurate diagnosis is vital in cases in which a child enters a hospital with a serious illness. Researchers of the University of Oviedo, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias (HUCA) and the Research health Gregorio Marañón in Madrid they have advanced in the process of validation in the clinical practice of certain biomarkers that are warning of an increased risk of mortality in children admitted to intensive care. Tests conducted to more of 250 Pediatric patients admitted in critical condition have enabled to show that the levels of each of these four markers allow to establish better prognosis and risk of mortality from these small patients.

 

The prestigious magazine Critical Care just published the conclusions of the study developed over a year and a half in the Pediatric ICU of both hospitals and coordinated by the Professor of the Department of Medicine of the University of Oviedo, Corsino King. The work has been developed with the support of the Fundación Ernesto Sanchez Villares and Enterprise Thermofisher-Brahms.

 

The possibility of detecting patients with increased risk of death in the first hours of entry through biomarkers may be useful to carry out a comprehensive monitoring and more intensive treatment that promotes the recovery of the same. Research has found that the presence of high levels of certain indicators in children in critical state warning about an increased risk of mortality. Physicians have focused their analysis on four biomarkers: Procalcitonin, Pro-adrenomedullin, Pro-endothelin and C-reactive protein.

 

“A blood test performed in the first hours after admission in pediatric intensive care helps to predict the severity of these children.”

 

More than one decade ago that Corsino King team works on the analysis of the Procalcitonin as marker to warn of the existence of an infection or inflammation in the body. Researchers at the University of Oviedo were pioneers in the use of this molecule as a biomarker to detect problems related to inflammation or infection more easily.

 

In the case of the Pro-adrenodulina and Pro-endothelin, both give the sound the alarm about the existence of a problem in the inside cover of the blood vessels. For its part, the C-reactive protein used as a marker of infection for years in the Pediatric ICU.

 

The next step in the research is to analyze how it impacts the evolution of levels of these markers in the process of improvement or worsening of the patient. Physicians provide a set of cut points on the scale that allow them to determine the severity of each case, What is a key support for the management of the patient as well as to transmit information to families. Clinical experience in the Pediatric ICU at both hospitals allows you to keep track of the evolution of the patients and the levels of each indicator. The current print, It needs to be confirmed in future studies, It is when the marker levels decrease the development will be favorable, While when rise forecast worsens.

 

King C, García-Hernández I, A shell, Martinez-Camblor P, Botran M, Medina to, Prieto B, Lopez-Herce J. Pro-adrenomedullin, Pro-endothelin-1, Procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and mortality risk in critically ill children: a prospective study. Crit Care. 2013 Oct 16;17(5):R240

 

 

Uniovi.es [en línea] Oviedo (ESP): uniovi.es, 19 de diciembre de 2013 [REF. 12 in December of 2013] Available on Internet: http://www.uniovi.es/comunicacion/noticias/-/asset_publisher/33ICSSzZmx4V/content/investigadores-de-la-universidad-de-oviedo-mejoran-el-diagnostico-en-ninos-en-estado-critico?redirect=/comunicacion/noticias

 



Robo-Sperm Could Be the Drug Delivery Mechanism of the Future

16 12 2013

Building a motor small enough to move a single cell can be terribly tricky. That’s why researchers in Germany have decided to instead hijack a natural mini-motor: the sperm.

Why sperm, you ask? As described in New Scientist,

 

“Sperm cells are an attractive option because they are harmless to the human body, do not require an external power source, and can swim through viscous liquids.”

 

But sperm don’t inherently go where you want them to go. Thus the scientists used some clever nano-engineering to rein them in.

Scientists put bull sperm cells in a petri dish along with a couple dozen iron-titanium nanotubes. The tubes act like those woven fingertraps—sperm can swim into them but can’t back themselves out. Using magnets, scientists can then steer the swimmers in the direction of their choosing. It’s like a remote-control robot where the sperm start the engines and the researchers provide the navigation.

 

Sperm for Fertilization and Pharmaceuticals

The study was just a proof of concept, demonstrating that the swimmers could be steered in this way. But the technology could one day offer an alternative to in vitro fertilization (whereby sperm fertilize an egg in a petri dish). Spermbots, in contrast, could potentially enable a doctor to direct the entire fertilization process inside the body (in vivo).

And potential applications go beyond fertilization. Thepaper, published inAdvanced Materials, describes spermbots’ potential future use for micromanipulation, like drilling itty bitty holes in tissues inside the body, or fixing cancer cells. Another exciting possibility is targeted drug delivery. The nanotubes are made of a superfine membrane that could carry drugs to diseased parts of the body. The researchers say their bots are an improvement over other sperm-driven nanoparticle setups that have so far proven ineffective, or worse, toxic.

Sperm: not just for baby-making anymore.

See the bots in action, below:

YouTube Preview Image

 

Video credit:Magdanz et al./Institute for Integrative Nanosciences;Image credit: Lightspring/Shutterstock.

 

 

 

By Breanna Draxler

 

Blogs.discovermagazine.com [en línea] Waukesha WI (USA): blogs.discovermagazine.com, 16 de diciembre de 2013 [REF. 12 in December of 2013] Available on Internet:

http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/d-brief/2013/12/12/robo-sperm-could-be-the-drug-delivery-mechanism-of-the-future/#.Uq305yjRcsy



MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS NON-INVASIVE MONITORING

12 12 2013

The study of the retina displays form non-invasive evolution of Multiple Sclerosis

Neurodegenerative diseases are chronic and there is still no effective treatment, in what has been a growing concern in our aging society. The lack of therapy adds to the difficulty of studying the effect of new drugs on the brain, Since the death of the patient cannot be a diagnosis and histopathological study full.

The journal Annals of Neurology publishes a work that demonstrates that it is possible to monitor the evolution of Multiple Sclerosis through the retina. Dr. Íñigo Gabilondo is the first signatory of the work, and the last is the Dr. Pablo Villoslada, the Multiple Sclerosis group, Pathogenesis and new therapies of the IDIBAPS Neuroimmunology program. The work has been done in collaboration with the service of Neurology and the ophthalmology service of the Hospital Clínic, that you configured the Visual Via laboratory, funded by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III.

 

The eye is a window to the brain, Since this extends to the retina via the optic nerve. The retina, to be part of the brain, is also affected by the neurodegenerative diseases as Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. Techniques laser image analysis allow to achieve resolutions of up to 1.000 times smaller than 1 mm, more than enough to analyze that poke in the eye for the optic nerve and nerves that measure a micron in diameter. Even you are working with techniques of spectroscopy for molecular imaging that would identify changes in the composition of neurons before morphological changes appear.

The published work in Annals of Neurology combines optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in 100 patients with Multiple Sclerosis, at the time of inclusion on the study and a year later. The evolution of data obtained through imaging techniques related to the clinical progression of patients to demonstrate that there is a degeneration of the nerves of the visual way representative of what happens inside the brain. In addition, degeneration of axons of the neurons was independent of the buds suffered by patients, most obvious disease and acute inflammatory phase but they don't have as much importance on their progress.

This study applies these techniques to Multiple Sclerosis, and soon we will analyse other ailments such as Parkinson's or REM sleep disorders, that are a symptom of more premature a neurodegenerative disease known. The objective is to monitor the disease in a way non-invasive from its earliest stages, and thus obtain information enabling to predict its evolution in new cases. These techniques are invaluable for testing the effect of the new clinical approaches seeking to stop the progression of neurodegenerative diseases.

 

The article reference:Gabilondo I, Martinez-Lapiscina HD, Martinez-Heras E, Fraga-Pumar E, Llufriu S, Ortiz S, Bullich S, M Sepulveda, C Falcon, Berenguer J, A. Saiz, Sanchez-Dalmau B, Villoslada P.TRANS-synaptic axonal degeneration in the visual pathway in multiple sclerosisAnnals of Neurology. 2013 Oct 2. DOI: 10.1002/Ana.24030. [Epub ahead of print]Article inPubMed

 

Blog.hospitalclinic.org [en línea] Barcelona (ESP): blog.hospitalclinic.org, 12 de diciembre de 2013 [REF. 04 in December of 2013] Available on Internet: http://blog.hospitalclinic.org/es/2013/12/retina-esclerosi-multiple/



Project Retriever: Hearing augmented reality glasses

9 12 2013

The Spanish consulting of it Quality Objects is developing the Retriever project, consisting of the creation of a prototype of glasses of augmented reality for people with visual disabilities full and partial, In addition advanced to the cane or dog guide.

 

The Retriever project of the technological consultancy Quality Objects, within the framework of the plan Avanza I d of the Ministry of industry r & d, It aims at the development of a prototype of hearing smart glasses (equipped with sensors and augmented reality technology) for people with reduced or no visibility that would complement the cane or dog guide who normally used in your day to day, helping to turn obstacles into three-dimensional sounds that guide them to avoid them and improve their integration.

 

These glasses provide to persons with visual disabilities sound information (by tones and frequencies) your close environment and the barriers hindering their full integration with the same, as stairs and steps, doors and obstacles and objects of all kinds, with the innovation that also incorporate an emergency stop button (24× 7) that it can be used easily in case of being disoriented or in danger.

 

These smart lenses are connected to a smarphone with Android (soon it will also be available for iPhone) that integrates signals emitted by different sensors of proximity and translates them into indications of orientation and directionality (with GPS navigation on augmented reality hearing system), so that the user accesses sound guided itineraries, perceptible by people with visually through headphones and vibrators.

 

The user thus has information to prevent, for example, at the height of the head branches, avoid obstacles such as street lamps and trees, walking parallel to a wall, etc. and without having to use the cane.

The operation of the emergency stop button is also simple, Since just press it for three seconds to communicate with the Service Centre (24× 7) It will call the phone to give you the necessary assistance or contact emergency services.

Yet as prototype, these glasses have already been tested successfully in several associations for the blind, as Foundation Retina Spain, Association of myopia Magna (Amires) or the Association Retina Asturias, and it is expected that they will start to be marketed in May of 2014 at an approximate price of 199 EUR.

 

 

 

Digitalavmagazine.com [en línea] Madrid (ESP): digitalavmagazine.com, 09 in December of 2013 [REF. 21 November of 2013] Available on Internet: http://2013/11/21/quality-objects-desarrolla-en-el-proyecto-retriever-gafas-de-realidad-aumentada-auditiva-para-personas-con-discapacidad-visual/ www.digitalavmagazine.com/



Drowning in children: Pool, do not know how to swim and relax in the surveillance.

5 12 2013

Nine of every ten child drownings occur in swimming pools

 

 

 

 

 

 

A recent study examines the choking episodes served in 21 hospitals in Spain during the summer of 2009 and 2010. The 60% the victims were under six years of age and more than the 70% they did not know to swim or float used when they were drowning. In addition, in eight out of ten cases persons who were in her care admitted a relaxation in monitoring.

 

Drownings are the second leading cause of all deaths worldwide for unintentional injuries in children one to fourteen years. For this reason, a team of professionals from the Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, in Barcelona, He has coordinated a study to know its incidence in pediatric emergency departments of 21 across Spain hospitals.

 

Like this, between the months of June and September of the year 2009 and 2010 the participating schools attended a total of 53 children with symptoms of choking. The 64% they were children of 6 years, the 71,7% could not swim and the 97% It had no float at the time of the accident.

 

The results reveal that in six in ten cases the child was bathing in a pool and in eight out of ten people who had it in his charge had absented themselves a moment or had relaxed surveillance.

 

The work, published in the magazine Annals of Pediatrics, concludes that as a result of drowning a 10% the children died or suffered consequences. The rest recovered thanks to the resuscitation maneuvers made by relatives in-situ.

 

"Drowning have a very high mortality and it is necessary to take extra precautions and monitoring of children in swimming pools, "especially in the case of children six years because you are one of the groups most at risk", explains to SINC Fernando Panzino, of the emergency service of the catalan hospital and lead author study.

 

Panzino also points out "the need for the population to learn techniques for help because the early application of the resuscitation maneuvers is critical for the prognosis and survival of victims".

 

With regard to the prevention of such situations, the experts certify that you a effective monitoring He could have avoided the 90% of deaths. However, Although swimming lessons were associated with a 88% reduction of the risk between one and four years, This strategy should not replace the surveillance, the proper fencing of pools and flotation systems.

 

Higher risk in children and men

 

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), drowning is defined as the process in which was suffering breathing difficulties for submersion or immersion in a liquid, with results that are classified as death, no morbidity and morbidity.

 

The who estimates that drowning is the third leading cause of death by unintentional injury in the world and pose a 7% of all deaths related to injuries.

In fact, It is estimated that in the world die each year by drowning 388 000 people. The risk of drowning is higher in children, men and people with easy access to the water.

 

In Spain the incidence of drowning is estimated at 1,5 by each 100.000 inhabitants, "although so far there were no State multicenter studies in the pediatric population", aims Panzino.

 

For the authorities, any prevention strategy should include engineering methods to help eliminate the danger; legislation to comply with preventive measures and reduce exposure; pedagogy directed to people and communities so that they are more aware of the risk and know how to react; and prioritization of initiatives from public health to study preventive interventions.

 

 

Bibliographic reference:

(F). Panzino, I.. Limerick, (C). Luaces and J. Pou. "Drowning not intentional immersion. Analysis of circumstances and epidemiological profile of the victims served in 21 Spanish emergency services". Annals of Pediatrics 2013;78(3):178-184.

 

Contact:

(F). Panzino Hospital Sant Joan de Déu University of Barcelona Email: fpanzino@hsjdbcn.org

 

 

Hsjdbcn.org [en línea] Esplugues del Llobregat, BCN (ESP): hsjdbcn.org, 05 in December of 2013 [REF. 08 in July of 2013] Available on Internet: http://www.hsjdbcn.org/ collage/images/potter/tempFiles/potterTmpFile_uuid_2153417611/Estudio+ahogamientos.pdf

 



Why tumors become resistant to chemotherapy?

2 12 2013

The IDIBELL researchers describe the changing epigenetic explaining the lack of response to the drug in colorectal cancer

 

Imagen al microscopio de un cáncer de colon

Image of a colon cancer under a microscope

A very common in Oncology observation is the phenomenon that a patient with a tumor get a drug and responds very well, but a few months after the cancer reappears and is now resistant to the chemotherapy given previously. What has happened? Many mechanisms contribute to explain this effect called "acquired resistance", But today the Group of Manel Esteller, Program Director of Epigenetics and biology of the Cancer of the Institute of biomedical research of Bellvitge, ICREA researcher and Professor of Genetics at the University of Barcelona, described in the official magazine of the national centre of research of the Cancer in United States, The Journal of The National Cancer Institute, the existence of differences epigenetic explaining the lack of tumor response that comes back.

 

"We have studied cancer cells of colon which in principle were sensitive to the drug Oxaliplatin and then became unresponsive to the drug and we have found that the resistant tumors have inactivated a gene (SRBC) in his DNA"explained Manel Esteller"loss of activity occurs in a gene that is allegedly involved in the repair of genetic material. Therefore these tumor cells reappeared when they receive the drug quickly repaired the effect of it and not die. Studying over two hundred patients for colon cancer we also check that the inactivation of the gene is associated with worse survival of these people despite treatment. Curiously, the loss of function of this gene could also explain why some tumors of the colon are already entering the drug resistant, It is what is known as "primary resistance" - concludes. Esteller.

 

The discovery may have important implications for the personalized treatment of colon cancer. If these findings extend to other clinical trials, the determination of the State of activation of the SRBC gene could be useful to decide whether a patient should receive a type of drug or other. Likewise the use of another family of drugs that return activity to gene (Epigenetic drugs) It could restore the original drug sensitivity, Oxaliplatin.

 

At last, a very promising path opens to examine whether similar mechanisms are happening in other human tumors more than colon cancer.

 

The article reference

Epigenetic Inactivation of the BRCA1 Interactor SRBC and Resistance to Oxaliplatin in Colorectal Cancer. C Moutinho, Martínez-Cardús to, C Santos, Navarro-Perez V,Martínez-Balibrea E, Brullet E, Carmona FJ, Sartore-Bianchi to, Cassingena A, Siena S, Elez E, Tabernero J, R Salazar, Abad A, Esteller M. The Journal of the National Cancer Institute, PMID: 24273214, 2013.

 

 

Idibell.cat [en línea] Barcelona (ESP): idibell.cat, 02 in December of 2013 [REF. 28 November of 2013] Available on Internet: http://modul/noticias/es/633/por-que-los-tumores-se-vuelven-resistentes-a-la-quimioterapia www.idibell.cat/