Heparin demonstrates dual activity against malaria

31 07 2014

A research published in Nanomedicine and carried out by scientists of the IBEC, ISGlobal and UB opens the door to improve the treatment of malaria by heparin.

 

The study published in Nanomedicine explores if heparin, that has shown to have activity against malaria and affinity specific binding to red blood cells infected by Plasmodium falciparum against non-infected cells, You can display both properties and join them in a strategy of administration of drugs against malaria. In this case heparin would have a dual role as antimalarial and element of targeting of nanoparticles loaded with drugs that would act to join the infected red blood cells. This study, carried out by researchers of the CRESIB, Research Center of the Institute for bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), of ISGlobal and of the Universitat de Barcelona, He has been published in Nanomedicine.

 

Heparin electrostatically adsorbed on the positively charged liposomes and loaded with primaquine, antimalarial drug, He was able to triple the activity in cultures of P. falciparum drug encapsulation. At concentrations below which induce in vivo mouse blood anticoagulation, parasiticide activity turned out to be the sum of the activities separate free as antimalarial heparin and heparin linked to the liposome as a Vectorizer for encapsulated primaquine.

 

Researchers observed by fluorescence confocal and electron microscopy to images within of 30 minutes from treated red blood cells infected by Plasmodium with heparin, This had penetrated the intracellular parasites.

 

Xavier Fernández-Busquets, researcher IBEC and ISGlobal and study coordinator, He says that "these findings open the door to improve the treatment with heparin malaria due to its activity as a drug and as a specific other antimalarials Vectorizer additive; However, It will be necessary to perform more clinical research to verify the role of heparin in patients infected by Plasmodium”.

 

The article reference: Marques j., Moles and, Urban P, Prohens R, Busquets MA, C Sevrin, C Grandfils, Fernandez-Busquets X. (2014). “Application of heparin as a dual agent with antimalarial and liposome targeting activities towards Plasmodium-infected red blood cells.” Nanomedicine, EPUB ahead of print

ibecbarcelona.eu [en línea] Barcelona (ESP): ibecbarcelona.EU, 28 de julio de 2014 [REF. 31 in July of 2014] Available on Internet: http://NOTICIAS-DE-INVESTIGACION/heparin-exhibits-dual-activity-against-malaria.html www.ibecbarcelona.eu/



The presence of hepatitis affects insulin production

28 07 2014

The presence of hepatitis affects insulin production, an expert warns.

A specialist of the IMSS It shows that a high percentage of cases present no obvious symptoms, so it recommended to carry out studies on a regular basis

Virus attack on the liver leads to swell and harden (hepatitis) and some of its main functions do not, These include participation in the production of insulin in conjunction with the pancreas. The lack of this hormone will trigger the blood glucose levels, the degree of cataloguing to the plaintiff as a diabetic patient.

 

This was explained by Dr. Paulo López Guillén, owner of the clinic of infectious diseases Juan I. Menchaca of the IMSS in Jalisco. He added that viruses that result in hepatitis B and C are even more harmful, since they tend to cause chronic disease and damage to the liver gradually.

 

The specialist cautioned that high percentage hepatitis courses without obvious symptoms, so it is important to periodic laboratory studies.

 

"Courses the majority of persons infected with hepatitis will not generate acute liver damage so we have a clinical picture of jaundice or yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes" (Sclera)”, the infectious disease specialist refers.

 

Especially recommended periodic assessments to people who have received blood transfusions before 1986, as well as those with piercings and tattoos, or even those addicted to intravenous drugs, because the hepatitis C virus is concentrated in the blood.

 

Once the hepatitis C virus enters the body, “in the 95 per cent of the cases remains, then it may take a long time before express, hence be considered chronic; in the five per cent remaining, people who come in contact with the micro-organism form antibodies that prevent the virus to settle in the liver and therefore “There are no nor as carriers or much less become sick”, He said the specialist.

 

On the way of transmission of hepatitis B, the doctor said its transmission mechanism is very similar to the HIV and includes the STDs and the blood, so is extremely risky.

 

The family doctor through an analysis of the blood (blood count) You can identify a decrease in platelets, increase in white blood cells and anemia, which should make you suspicious of presence of hepatitis; also, It is important to make a liver function test, This also by means of an analysis of the liver enzymes, transaminases specifically, which tend to rise as a manifestation of problems, in this important organ.

 

Since it is used as transport blood, glucose comes into contact with practically all the organs of the body, so is vitally important periodic evaluations to keep everything under control, especially if some risks of contagion have been identified.

 

 

Dicyt.com [en línea] Salamanca (ESP): dicyt.com, 28 de julio de 2014 [REF. 21 in July of 2014] Available on Internet:

http://noticias/la-presencia-de-hepatitis-afecta-a-la-produccion-de-insulina-advierte-un-experto www.dicyt.com/



CNEP researchers target brain circuitry to treat intractable mental disorders

24 07 2014

Neuroscientists, engineers and physicians are teaming up for an ambitious five-year, $26 million project to develop new techniques for tackling mental illness. By using devices implanted in the brain, they aim to target and correct malfunctioning neural circuits in conditions such as clinical depression, addiction and anxiety disorders.

 

CNEP researchers plan to target malfunctioning neural circuits to treat intractable mental disorders. (iStockphoto)

CNEP researchers plan to target malfunctioning neural circuits to treat intractable mental disorders. (iStockphoto)

The project was announced on Tuesday, May 27 by the U.S. government’s Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) as part of its Systems-Based Neurotechnology for Emerging Therapies (SUBNETS) program.

The heart of the project lies at the Center for Neural Engineering and Prostheses (CNEP), a UC Berkeley-UC San Francisco collaboration that kicked off in 2011 with a pioneering vision to use engineering techniques to repair neural circuits that have gone awry. Eleven of the researchers on the project are members of CNEP.

In addition to the investigators from UCSF and UC Berkeley, the multi-institutional project brings together researchers from Cornell University and New York University with industry partners from Cortera Neurotechnologies and Posit Science. Project members will be working under a collaborative agreement between UCSF and DARPA, and in conjunction with scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which is receiving separate funding from DARPA as part of this research.

“By analyzing patterns of interaction among brain regions known to be involved in mental illness, we can get a more detailed look than ever before at what might be malfunctioning, and we can then develop technology to correct it,” said CNEP co-director Dr. Edward Chang, UCSF neurosurgeon and principal investigator of the project.

 

Moving beyond motor networks

Brain implants emitting electrical signals have been used for more than 15 years to treat the motor symptoms of disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and essential tremor, a nerve system disorder characterized by involuntary shaking.

“We will use new technology to record from large-scale brain networks that are relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders, and apply precise electrical stimulation to unlearn dysfunction in these networks,” said CNEP co-director Jose Carmena, UC Berkeley associate professor of electrical engineering and computer sciences and of neuroscience. “This project could dramatically change the landscape of treatment options for a range of mental conditions.”

Carmena, an expert in brain-machine interfaces, will coordinate the UC Berkeley research team on this project, which officially launches June 1. The other UC Berkeley researchers are Jonathan Wallis and Dr. Robert Knight, professors of psychology and of neuroscience; Jan Rabaey, Elad Alon and Michel Maharbiz, professor and associate professors, respectively, of electrical engineering and computer sciences; and Friedrich (Fritz) Sommer, adjunct associate professor at the Redwood Center for Theoretical Neuroscience.

Knight is former director of the Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, where Carmena, Sommer and Wallis also have appointments. Rabaey and Maharbiz are also co-founders of Cortera, a Berkeley-based company which designs medical devices to treat neurological conditions.

 

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Funded through President Obama’s Brain Initiative, a team of scientists and physicians is embarking on a $26 million project to develop a revolutionary and long-lasting treatment for depression, anxiety disorders, addiction and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

 

More targeted than current treatments

The researchers noted that limited treatment options are now available for mental disorders. There are drugs that affect a specific molecular target, but since any one target might be involved in multiple pathways, use of these medications can lead to unwanted side effects. Another option is psychotherapy, which is expensive, with mixed rates of success.

“The exciting thing about this project is that it enables us to do something that is not just incrementally better,” said Wallis. “This can be a big leap. We’re developing an entirely different approach to the treatment of mental illness by using brain implants to target a small population of neurons involved in neuropsychiatric disorders instead of using drugs that change broad swaths of activity.”

The project also opens up the possibility that maladaptive circuits can be permanently changed, essentially curing patients of their psychiatric disorders.

 

Mapping, designing, testing

The project begins with physician researchers from UCSF measuring and identifying brain signaling pathways specifically associated with anxiety and depression. The UC Berkeley, UCSF and NYU neuroscientists will then be charged with designing and testing in animal models devices that will monitor neural activity and deliver electrical stimulation when needed to correct abnormal brain patterns and to strengthen alternative circuits to bypass malfunctioning ones. By the end of the project, the plan is to have the devices ready for human trials.

Engineers from UC Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Cortera have already made headway in developing a state-of-the-art neuromodulation medical device for this project. Called OMNI, the device consists of low-power, miniaturized electronics that sense and stimulate neural networks to counteract dysfunctional circuits.

“The brain implant we’re developing has capabilities way beyond what exists today,” said UC Berkeley’s Alon. “With a 64-fold increase in the number of electrodes and the ability to cover different areas simultaneously, we will enable a much more complete view of the brain.”

“We obviously have many societal problems that stem from mental illness, and I’m excited to be developing state-of-the-art electronics that contribute toward a solution,” Alon added.

DARPA’s SUBNETS program supports President Barack Obama’s BRAIN (Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies) initiative to develop new tools for treating, curing and even preventing a range of brain disorders.

The establishment of CNEP was spearheaded by Knight; Shankar Sastry, dean of the College of Engineering at UC Berkeley; and Dr. Mitchel Berger, professor and chair of the Department of Neurological Surgery at UCSF.

 

RELATED INFORMATION

By Sarah Yang

Newscenter.berkeley.edu [en línea] Berkeley, CA (USA): newscenter.berkeley.edu, 24 in July of 2014 [REF. 27 in May of 2014] Available on Internet: http://newscenter.berkeley.edu/2014/05/27/cnep-targets-brain-circuitry-to-treat-mental-disorders/



Experimental Regenerative Medicine Therapies for Heart Diseases

21 07 2014

Stem Cell Expert Explains How Experimental Regenerative Medicine Therapies Can Regrow Damaged Heart Muscle.

 

Stem cell therapy for cardiovascular disease isn’t a medical pipe dream – it’s a reality today, although patients need to better understand the complex science behind these experimental treatments, according to the chief of Cardiology for the Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute.

In a 17-minute TEDxGrandForks talk now available on YouTube.com, Timothy D. Henry, MD, known for his innovative work in developing stem cell treatments for advanced heart disease patients, said he understands why so many are confused about the latest scientific findings.

 

Most people today “get our information from sound bites,” and the issues surrounding stem cells are too complex to be fully explained in a single catchy phrase, Henry said, adding, “We have far too much controversy about stem cells and far too much hype.

“Stem cell science has become “a political dividing line” with many opposing research into stem cells derived from human embryos, Henry said. However, he said, today’s leading-edge clinical research focuses on stem cells derived from adults that can be scientifically programmed to become a specialized cell, such as a heart cell or a brain cell, thereby avoiding the ethical questions involved in embryonic research.

“Very few of the cells we give actually become muscle or actually become blood vessels,” Henry said. “What they do … is increase growth factors” and encourage natural cells in the body to generate new, healthy tissue.”

The Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, directed by Eduardo Marbàn, MD, PhD, is a world leader in studying the use of stem cells to regenerate heart muscle in patients who have had heart attacks. In 2009, Cedars-Sinai physicians conducted the first infusion of stem cells into heart attack patients, using stem cells grown from the patients’ own heart tissue. The resulting study, published in February 2012 in The Lancet, showed that patients who underwent the stem cell procedure experienced a significant reduction in the size of the scar left behind by a heart attack. Patients also experienced a sizable increase in healthy heart muscle following the experimental stem cell treatments.

Currently, Henry is co-directing a new stem cell study with Raj Makkar, MD, director of Interventional Cardiology. The national trial, called ALLSTAR, uses heart cells from unrelated donors in an effort to reverse lasting tissue damage after a heart attack.

During his talk, Henry also expressed concern for patients who might be taken advantage of by unscrupulous clinics outside of the United States that offer stem cell “cures” for everything from neurological diseases to baldness. Patients also need to understand that stem cell science has a long way to go before regenerative medicine treatments are widely available.

“We have made major progress in the past 20 years but we still have needs,” Henry said, particularly for advanced heart disease patients whose only hope is a transplant or a mechanical pumping device. “What we need to do is very well-designed studies that actually teach us something and take us to the next step. …There are significant challenges, but we can meet them.”

 

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Cedars-sinai.edu [en línea] The Angeles, CA (USA): cedars-sinai.edu 21 in July of 2014 [REF. 17 in June of 2014] Available on Internet: http://www.cedars-sinai.edu/About-Us/News/News-Releases-2014/Stem-Cell-Expert-Explains-How-Experimental-Regenerative-Medicine-Therapies-Can-Regrow-Damaged-Heart-Muscle.aspx



New combination therapy to curb resistant sarcomas

17 07 2014

The researchers of the research group at the Institute of biomedical research of Bellvitge sarcomas (IDIBELL) and the Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO) they have been tested in 19 patients a new combination therapy to combat resistant sarcomas. The results of the clinical trial, He indicated that the new treatment could stabilize the growth of these tumors, This week they have been published in the magazine British Journal of Cancer.

The researchers Oscar Martínez-Tirado and Javier García del Muro

 

Sarcomas

Sarcomas are a type of tumor little frequent and complex since there are several subtypes. It can affect children up to advanced ages. Is usually diagnosed in very localised and little advanced phases. So that the 50% It recovers with big surgeries and spot treatment. But the other 50% It is resistant to conventional therapies and end up doing metastasis.

The research group at the IDIBELL sarcomas, led by Oscar Martínez-Tirado, research to test new drugs or new combinations of drugs that are more effective against these tumors and therefore works together with the Coordinator of the unit of sarcomas of the ICO, Javier García del Muro. This work in basic research to more clinical team has allowed in this case to carry the results of research of the laboratory to the patient's bedside.

 

Conventional chemotherapy more targeted treatment

The researchers tested different combinations of conventional chemotherapy with new drugs aimed at molecular targets in the laboratory in Sarcoma cells and decided to try a combination of conventional chemotherapy used to treat these tumors and rapamycin in mice, a drug that acts specifically in the mTOR pathway, a protein altered in various types of cancer.

“With the results in cell lines, we think that it was the best option for testing in mice” explained Martínez-Tirado “but the truth is that the results in animals were spectacular. In mice that had the tumor and gave them this combination, the tumor kept growing and weeks after stopping treatment, not recovered as it happens if we try them only with chemotherapy or only with rapamycin”.

The person in charge of this phase I clinical trial has been Javier García of the wall that has tested this new combination of nineteen patients, most sarcoma but also involved patients with other types of tumors that have no treatment. “Although the phase I trials are used to determine the recommended dose of the new treatment and discard toxicities, Yes, we have seen that the combination is active in various tumor types, Since we have seen very long in very advanced tumors and chemotherapy-resistant stabilizations”.

With these encouraging results, the Group has already started phase II clinical trial. “We have completed the recruitment of patients, in this case, only sarcomas, to test if this combination really works in these patients and if it is better than current treatments”.

 

Item reference

Juan Martin-Liberal, Marta Gil-martin, Miguel Sainz-marbled, Nuria Gonzalo, Raul Rigo, Helena Colom, Carmen Muñoz, Oscar M pulled and Xavier García del Muro. Phase I study of sirolimus plus gemcitabine in solid tumors. British Journal of Cancer. EPUB ahead July 8th.

 

 

Idibell.cat [en línea] Barcelona (ESP): idibell.cat, 17 de julio de 2014 [REF. 10 in July of 2014] Available on Internet: http://modul/noticias/es/703/nueva-combinacion-terapeutica-para-frenar-sarcomas-resistentes www.idibell.cat/



Interview with the entitled Ignacio Hernández, winner of the 'Call of innovation' 2014

14 07 2014

Ignacio Hernández Medrano title year 2007 in medicine by the University Miguel Hernández of Elchein 2007. in his head was born 'Medroom', innovative software for the re-use of electronic medical record, idea that just be the Spanish call winner'Call of innovation'.

This is a competition organized by the Singularity University, institution interdisciplinary University which aims to "bring together, educate and inspire leaders who strive to understand and facilitate the exponential development of technologies to meet the great challenges of humanity". with the support of a wide range of leaders in the academic world, business and Government, Singularity University hopes to stimulate innovative thinking and high impact solutions to solve some of the most pressing challenges of the planet. Companies such as Google, Cisco or Nokia are among its founders.

The Spanish call of the 'Call of innovation'based on an ambitious question:

 

How you suggested some of the major problems of Spain (unemployment, education, financial crisis, energy dependence, etc.) and improve the life of 10 millions of Spaniards through technology?

 

The idea of Ignacio has gained in 2014, and the prize is a scholarship for studying the postgraduate programme (Graduate Studies Program) Singularity University during the summer of this year, at the headquarters of the NASAin Silicon Valley (NASA Ames Park). This interdisciplinary program of 10 week is one of the most selective in the world, and every year to leaders and entrepreneurs technology from around the world to analyze the major advances of the different technologies that are transforming the world, and explore how to use these technologies to resolve the great problems of mankind.

Ignacio Hernández Medrano is a member of the Foundation for biomedical research of the Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal in Madrid. Currently, It combines his position as neurologist in this hospital with the Deputy Directorate of the Ramón y Cajal Institute of health research.

 

 

 

We moved him a few questions which we kindly answered:

1. First of all, congratulations. What's it like to receive an award like this?

We often hear ideas and messages from the world of motivation and human resources, that you tell us that we must strive to do what we like, that we should not conform to, etc. However, Although would love to all our dreams, life drags and often frightens us jump to the empty. I've been often tempted to follow the traditional path, insurance, and when I decided to divert me from the established, It has been difficult. This award comes to confirm that out of the comfort zone is worth, that dare to be what you want to be, in the end it just compensating for.

2. Silicon Valley, NASA, Google... would think someone in a short time is going to be sharing space with some of the best brains in the world?

I think that only a privileged situation to reach depends on the enthusiasm and energy. The dedication is the most important. I have always had a vocation close by doing something which contributes minimally to improve things. What we are seeing is that in places like Silicon Valley, the motivation of the minds that work there is preferably the contribute to the improvement of the living conditions of the people. I am impressed by the combination which show talent and good intentions. I look forward to getting there, tell them my ideas and enjoy watching them to expose their own.

3.' Call to innovation' is the name of the platform that seeks ideas to change the life to 10 millions of Spaniards through technology. How did you hear about this contest of ideas?

Nothing is coincidence. My team mates are very connected to the world of technology and innovation. They attend such forums frequently. The evening presented the contest began with a spectacular talk of the former Yahoo Vice President about how technology will improve the world. The room was full of engineers loaded with good ideas that were to participate, but, When you exit, everyone on the team it had clear: We competiríamos and would win. It may sound a bit corny, but it is completely true that when I saw the winners of the previous year on the stage, I thought: "the coming year will be there".

4.your idea of 'Medroom' has been selected among many others. What do you think has been the key to make it winner?

On the one hand we focused health sector, It is completely on the rise. Everyone wants to innovate in health, because we realize that we are using nineteenth-century methods and that the current technological development would make things more efficiently. However, understand the background of medicine can be complex for large companies. Us, as professionals in this field, with real experience in clinical practice, We can be an excellent lever of change to start the engine of technology in health, that is what you are looking for.

In addition, We're very aligned with the spirit of the entrepreneur who is rewarded now: young people, passionate, with ideas, a touch of intuition very multidisciplinary. And most importantly, with an approach very clear toward the social benefit.

5. To better understand your innovative idea, you explain what is 'Medroom'??

Medroom is a medical decision support system based on the re-use of information physicians scoring day by day in the medical histories of their patients. In practice, with this software tool, any doctor can look up what their colleagues did specialists in cases similar to they have between hands, but instantly, without intermediaries that sesguen information and large scale.

It is called Medroom because it generates a similar experience to enter a room where were all the specialists in a field and ask them their collective opinion about a particular medical problem.

6. How was the process to develop this software for the re-use of electronic medical record?

In recent years has been that the best ideas arise at the border between different fields of knowledge. It was just that we happened to us.

Looking at the world of law we realized that for lawyers and judges was essential to the use of the previous cases (the jurisprudence). Why not do something similar with the medicine? In the health, only a small part is reused; that which is published in scientific journals or conferences. But if we could use the total volume, the critical mass, then the informative value would be incalculable. That is what we have devised.

7. This was your main idea from the outset or after having several different ideas in mind?

The original idea was always the reuse of medical records. Now well, We have taken numerous turns, many times until the wee hours..., We have contacted specialists in different fields, to understand what technology would make possible the way, as artificial intelligence, for example.

It is essential to ask in the environment, discuss with friends and colleagues, expose yourself to criticism. I think that Arthur C development than the journey we have made is summarized in this phrase. Clarke:

"At first people will tell you that it is a crazy idea and it will never work. Then, people will tell you that your idea could work, but it is not worth to carry out. At last, I say, I told you that, It was a great idea since the beginning!-“

 

8.can be 'Medroom' an idea that will help to? 10 millions of people?

Medical information is folded each 5 years and the population aging increases the pressure on the doctors. Increasingly there are more science, but, a difference of a few decades ago, professionals do not have time to study it for a day. We urgently need an interaction between the human mind and artificial neural networks, or soon we will get everything.

Medroom is going to bring the best possible medical knowledge to any patient, whether in a health centre in Tenerife or in a Bogota clinic. It's approaching the population medicine excellence, without geographical or economic boundaries. Today, There is no reason why any citizen can not have access to the best scientific evidence, instantly and accurately.

9. Tell us what work currently.

I combine my work as a neurologist in the Hospital Ramon y Cajal in Madrid, with the Deputy Directorate of the Ramón y Cajal Institute of health research. It's manage biomedical science to align as much as possible with the current European trends.

10. You were a student of the University Miguel Hernández of Elche, the Bachelor of medicine, tell us memories that keep with affection of your times at UMH.

I took great friends that I have today almost daily intercourse. As almost everyone, on the College stage, I had time to have a good time.

11. Any teacher that you remember especially?

Remember that the Department of preventive medicine and public health was, as a whole, very good professionals. Motivated teachers, concerned about the students and leaders in their field. I owe to them largely my interest in the management of health services, He somehow has resulted after my study of health information.

12. One last question what would say you to graduates that they can see themselves reflected in you, by your desire and enthusiasm to help others?

Things are changing to better. It may sound idealistic, but there are tangible and evidenciables reasons for rational optimism. Today it is more possible that never say, participate, put ideas into practice and be agents of change in assets from anywhere in the world. Movements can be initiated with a mobile phone, generate knowledge in Group. We are exceptional witnesses, for the first time, the real role of the citizen. It is essential to take part in the democratization of thought. It was never easier to change reality.

13. Is there anything else that you would like to add?

Thank you for the interest and the work you do while maintaining our small community contact. The three creators of Medroom are Alicante and we are happy to participate and cooperate in any initiative that we planteéis.

We wish Ignacio that take full advantage of this opportunity that has earned with their effort and creativity. We keep in touch with him tell us how has gone it.

 

 

Alumni.UMH.es [en línea] Alicante (ESP): aLumni.UMH.es, 14 in July of 2014 [REF. 26 in May of 2014] Available on Internet: http://alumni.umh.es/2014/05/26/entrevista-ignacio-hernandez/



7 millions of deaths each year due to air pollution

10 07 2014

New estimates published today, the World Health Organization (WHO) reports that in 2012 a few 7 millions of people died - one in eight of the total of deaths in the world- as a result of exposure to air pollution. This conclusion more than doubles previous estimates and confirms that air pollution is currently, alone, the environmental risk for the world's most important health. If air pollution were reduced millions of lives could be saved.

 

 

Cardiovascular diseases, strokes and cancer

In particular, new data reveal a closer link between exposure to air pollution in general and cardiovascular diseases and indoor air, ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular accidents, as well as between air pollution and cancer. This is in addition to the role played by air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, such as acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive lung disease.

The new estimates are not only due to a wider knowledge of the diseases caused by air pollution, but also to a better assessment of human exposure to air pollutants due to more advanced measurements and technology. This has enabled scientists to analyze more closely the risks to health from a broader population distribution that now includes rural areas, In addition to the urban.

By regions, countries of low and middle-income in the regions of South-East Asia and Western Pacific of who bore the greatest burden related to pollution in 2012, with a total of 3,3 millions of deaths linked to indoor air pollution and 2,6 millions of deaths related to air pollution.

 

 

Prevent non-communicable diseases

«Cleaning the air that we breathe prevents the development of noncommunicable diseases and also reduces the risks of disease among women and vulnerable groups, as children and the elderly», says Dr. Flavia Bustreo, Assistant Director-General of who for the health of the family, the woman and the child. «Women and poor children pay a high price for indoor air pollution since they spend more time at his home by breathing fumes and soot from the kitchens of coal and firewood with leaks.»

 

«Cleaning the air that we breathe prevents the development of noncommunicable diseases and also reduces the risks of disease among women and vulnerable groups, as children and the elderly."  DRA. Flavia Bustreo, Assistant Director-General of who for the health of the family, the woman and the child

 

The evaluation includes the following breakdown of deaths attributed to specific diseases, What shows that the vast majority of air pollution-related deaths are due to cardiovascular disease:

 

Deaths due to air pollution - breakdown by disease:

40% -Ischemic heart disease;

40% -stroke;

11% -chronic obstructive pulmonary disease;

6% – lung cancer; and

3% -acute infection of respiratory tract in children.

 

Deaths due to pollution in the air of indoor - breakdown by disease:

34% – stroke;

26% – Ischemic heart disease;

22% – chronic obstructive pulmonary disease;

12% – acute infection of respiratory tract in children; and

6% – lung cancer.

 

The new estimates are based on the latest data from the who on mortality of 2012 and the evidence that exposure to air pollution poses a health risk. Estimates of the exposure of persons to pollution in different parts of the world were formulated through a new global data mapping that included data collected by satellite, measurements from the surveillance on land and data on pollutant emissions from key sources, as well as models on patterns of movement of pollution in the air.

 

Risk higher than previously thought

«Risks due to air pollution are superior to what was previously believed or understood, especially for heart disease and stroke», notes the Dra. María Neira, Director of the Department of public health who, Environmental and social determinants of health. «Currently there are few risks affecting both the world as air pollution health; «the evidence points to the need for measures agreed to clean up the air we all breathe.»

After analyzing the risk factors and take into account the revisions to the methodology, the who estimates that indoor air pollution had to do with 4,3 millions of deaths in 2012 in homes where coal stoves are used for cooking, wood and biomass. The new estimate is explained by better information on exposure to the contamination between the 2900 millions of people estimated that they live in households where firewood is used, coal or dung as a major cooking fuels, as well as by the evidence that air pollution is linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases and pneumonia, and cancers.

In the case of air pollution, the who estimates that in 2012 occurred 3,7 million deaths from urban and rural sources around the world.

 

A consequence of policies that are not sustainable

There are many people exposed to the two types of pollution: the atmospheric and indoor air. Because of this overlap, mortality attributed to the two sources not may simply add, Hence the total estimate of some 7 millions of deaths in 2012.

«Excessive air pollution is often a consequence of policies that are not sustainable in sectors such as the transport, energy, waste management and heavy industry. In the majority of cases, It will be also more long-term economic strategies that give priority to health due to the savings in health care costs, In addition to the benefits for climate», says Dr. Carlos Dora, Coordinator of the Department of public health who, Environmental and social determinants of health. «WHO and health sectors a role only to translate the scientific evidence on air pollution policies that can make a difference and provide improvements that will save lives.»

The publication of the data today is an important step in the progress of the roadmap of the who for the prevention of air pollution-related diseases. This implies the establishment under the auspices of the who of a global platform on the air quality and health that allows to generate better data on illnesses related to air pollution and more robust support for countries and cities through guidance, information and data demonstrating the health benefits derived from fundamental interventions.

This year, WHO will publish guidelines on the quality of indoor air in which deals with the use of domestic fuel, and analyze data on exposure to air pollution in general and the indoor air and related mortality, In addition to up-to-date information on the air quality measurements in 1600 cities in all regions of the world.

 

For more information please contact with:

Tarik Jasarevic Communications Department, Mobile who: +41 79 367 6214Tel.: +41 22 791 5099Email: jasarevict@who.int

Glenn Thomas Department of communications, WHO Tel.: +41 22 791 3983Mobile: +41 79 509 0677Email: thomasg@who.int

Nada Osseiran Department of public health and environment, WHO. Tel.: +41 22 791 4475Mobile: +4179 445 1624Email: osseirann@who.int

 

 

Who.int [en línea] Geneva (SUI): who.int, 10 in July of 2014 [REF. 25 March of 2014] Available on Internet: http://www.who.int/ mediacentre/news/releases/2014/air-pollution/en /



They designed a system able to get image 12 times more information than the human eye

7 07 2014

Researchers of the University of Granada, in collaboration with the Polytechnic University of Milan (Italy), they designed a system of multispectral image able to obtain information from a total of 36 color channels, faced with the 3 regular color image sensors

This scientific breakthrough could serve in the not-too-distant future to create new systems of assisted driving, identify banknotes and counterfeit documents or obtain much more complete than the current medical imaging

Researchers at the University of Granada have designed a new system image able to get up to 12 times more color information than the human eye and conventional cameras, resulting in a total of 36 color channels. This scientific breakthrough will enable capture multispectral images in real time in a very simple way, and it could serve in the not-too-distant future for developing new assisted driving systems, identify banknotes and counterfeit documents or obtain much more complete than the current medical imaging, among many other applications.

Scientists, belonging to the group Color Imaging Lab, Department of optics of the UGR, they have been designed by a system based on a new generation of sensors, developed at the Polytechnic University of Milan (Italy), combined with a multispectral array of filters to improve performance.

Color image sensors, present in all commonly used digital cameras (SLR cameras, Automatic, webcams, mobile phones, tablets, etc.), they have an architecture composed of a monochrome sensor ("black and white"), covered with a layer of color filters (commonly Red, Green and blue, also known as RGB). This architecture only extracts the information from one of these three colors at every point in the image or pixel. To extract the information from the rest of colors at each pixel, It is necessary to apply interpolation algorithms which in most cases are one of the best kept secrets of each manufacturer.

As explained by the main author of this work, Miguel Ángel Martínez Domingo, "the new sensors developed at the Polytechnic University of Milan are called Transverse Field Detectors (TFD, or transverse field detectors), and they are able to extract the full color information at each pixel of the image without a layer of filters of color on them.

To do this, take advantage of a physical phenomenon by which each photon penetrates at different depths depending on its wave length, that is to say, its color. Thus collecting these photons at different depths from the surface of Silicon sensor, You can separate the different color channels without using filters".

 

The novelty of the TFD

This advantage has already been exploited by other sensors prior, as the X 3 Foveon Inc. (EE.UU.). However, the TFD novelty lies in the fact that, applying a transverse electric field intensity variable and controlled, "we can modulate the depth at which the photons of each color channel are collected. This offers us the possibility to tune the way in which these sensors convert light in electrical signals", aims of the UGR researcher.

The UGR researcher points out "numerous applications in very different fields of research" that this new type of sensors may have.

"Multispectral imaging open endless possibilities in the different fields of science: medical imaging, Tele-deteccion, satellite imagery, military technology and defense, industrial applications, robotic vision, assisted or automatic driving, and a long list of possible applications-getting every day more and more the interest of scientists and engineers from all disciplines. Study the way in which the light interacts with the environment that surrounds us can give us valuable information about the behavior of this, a completely safely and non-invasive".

 

Bibliographic reference:

Combining transverse field detectors and color filter arrays to improve multispectral imaging systemsMiguel a.. Martínez, Eva M. Valero, Javier Hernández, Javier Romero, and Giacomo Langfelder Applied Optics, Vol. 53, Issue 13, pp. C14-C24 (2014)

 

 

Canalugr.es [en línea] Granada (ESP): canalugr.es, 07 in July of 2014 [REF. 24 in June of 2014] Available on Internet: http://canalugr.es/fisica-quimica-y-matematicas/item/73443-diseñan-un-sistema-de-imagen-capaz-de-obtener-12-veces-más-información-que-el-ojo-humano

 



Surgical planning using 3D printing

3 07 2014

The Hospital Sant Joan de Déu used a printing in 3D of a tumor to plan an extremely complex intervention a child of 5 years

 

A team of surgeons in the Hospital Sant Joan de Déu in detail planned intervention of great complexity to remove a tumor thanks to its reproduction using 3D printing technologies of the Fundació CIM, the UPC - Barcelona Tech point Technology Center (UPC).

 

Reproduced tumor is a neuroblastoma, one of the most common cancers in children and which is the 10% cancers diagnosed children. It's an extremely aggressive tumor that forms in the nervous tissue and which is mainly diagnosed in children during the first five years of life. His treatment involves surgery for tumor removal, combined chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.

 

Surgical excision, However, poses many difficulties because, due to its location, neuroblastoma surrounds blood vessels, arteries and surgeons must proceed with extreme precision to extract tumor cells without damaging the arteries and endanger the patient's life. In this context, the possibility to test the intervention in advance is key. Allows surgeons study which is most effectively tackle the tumor ensayandola repeatedly before the intervention. In addition, It allows to reduce the operation time, avoid complications and studying the way to remove the highest percentage of a possible lump.

 

To be able to plan more complex eradications of tumors, that you are sometimes inoperable, a team of surgeons in the Hospital Sant Joan de Déu has opted to start making 3D replicas. In collaboration with the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya - BarcelonaTech CIM Foundation (UPC), they have made a copy in 3D of neuroblastoma presenting a child of 5 years. To make it, the CIM Foundation technicians have crossed data performed a computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to the child.

 

Despite the fact that years ago that impressions are used in 3D in the field of maxillofacial surgery, for the reproduction of bones, application for soft tissue is a novelty. The difficulty posed by its use in the case presented is double:

 

  • A joint work between technical radiologists and manufacturing is necessary to review the scans of the affected area and decide which are the real contours of tissues.
  • The print has had to do with two different materials and the closest possible to the soft tissue that surgeons must intervene.

 

The copy of the tumor has been made using technology that allows printing on two kinds of materials. A resin has been used to reproduce blood vessels and organs of the affected area, and other translucent and soft consistency similar to the of the tumor so surgeons can try remove without damage to the vessels and organs. Complementarily, a prototype is also manufactured using organs without the tumo, to view the coveted outcome to the intervention.

 

 

Hsjdbcn.org [en línea] Barcelona (ESP): hsjdbcn.org, 03 de julio de 2014 [REF. 02 in July of 2014] Available on Internet: http://portal/es/web/2149152853/ctnt/dD98/_/_/zn0bep/El-Hospital-Sant-Joan-de-Déu-utiliza-una-impresión-en-3D-de-un-tumor-para-planifi.html www.hsjdbcn.org/