The regulation of the sale of medicines online

27 11 2014

The regulation of the sale of medicines online generates great business opportunities TI

 

The sale of medicines online is regulated in Spain, Although it has not developed. Experts agree that there are many opportunities.

Spain is one of the European countries presenting more opportunities in terms of E-Commerce. Not only because of high mobile penetration levels, If even for the improvement of the economy.

 

It is estimated that the percentage of transactions online in Spain are in the 3%. In countries such as UK or Germany is placed between a 10 and a 15%. In the coming years will witness a considerable increase in this percentage and online pharmacies will be one of the target business.

 

According to the Ministry of Health announced recently, at the beginning of 2015 It will begin to operate the network of authorized pharmacies to sell medicines via the internet. They should do so with a specific logo (approved by Brussels) accrediting the legality of the activity.

 

But there is still work to be done. According to the first study of market on the Digital presence of pharmacy in Spain, businesses do not use or take advantage of digital tools and almost half of them fails to comply with the legal rules.

 

In particular, only the 30% is on Twitter and the 43% on Facebook. A meager 0,2% of respondents supported using SEO tools.

The document warns that 4 of each 10 pharmacies does not comply with the legal rules. This rule for the pharmaceutical industry in social networks establishes a legal and ethical framework extensible to promotional activities. Internet legislation also covers the e-commerce, data protection, the privacy and security.

 

This translates into a new business opportunity for service providers. On the one hand, to optimize your communication through online channels, without this contravene the law. On the other hand, the more technical aspect. Drugstores authorized to sell online must implement access control technology, user ID and establishing a structure of shipments quickly and efficiently. For granted, patients data must be stored securely and be accessible at all times.

 

by Nerea Bilbao

 

 

Siliconnews.es [en línea] Silicon Valley, CA (USA): siliconnews.es, 27 November of 2014 [REF. 15 October of 2014] Available on Internet:http://2014/10/15/la-regulacion-de-la-venta-de-medicinas-online-genera-grandes-oportunidades-de-negocio-ti/ www.siliconnews.es/



Xavier Gomez-Batiste: Head of palliative care of who

24 11 2014

Xavier Gomez-Batiste has been appointed new Chief of palliative care of who.

WHO recognizes the leadership of Catalonia in palliative care programs. Yesterday was the presentation of this appointment in the Department of health. Gomez-Batiste was accompanied by the director-general of planning and health research, Carles constant; the Director of the Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Candela Street and rector of UVic, Jordi Montaña.

 

Xavier Gomez-Batiste, new head of palliative care of the who during his presentation at the Department of health

Xavier Gomez-Batiste, Director of the Observatory qualifier of the ICO, Director of the Chair of palliative care, University of Vic, Scientific Director of the program for the comprehensive care of people with advanced illnesses of Obra social La Caixa, and director of palliative care SARquavitae, It has been designated “Medical Officer for Palliative and Longterm Care” the World Health Organization (WHO) with headquarters in Geneva.

 

Yesterday was the presentation of this appointment in the Department of health. Gomez-Batiste was accompanied by the director-general of planning and health research, Carles constant; the Director of the Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Candela Street and rector of UVic, Jordi Montaña.

 

The appointment is a recognition to the leadership exercised by Catalonia in the field of palliative care, as from 1990 It is recognized as demonstrative of who territory. Following this tradition, Catalonia has joined successfully trends more innovative in palliative care implementing the model of care to advanced complexity (MACA).

 

The Health Plan of Catalonia 2011-2015 It provides a strategy for improvement in people with advanced chronic disease care, which represent among the 1 and the 1,5% of the population, and they are characterized by having a prognosis of life probably limited, accompanied by high complexity requirements, social and health. This Health Plan strategy is articulated through the programme of prevention and service chronicity (PPAC) and based on the catalan model in palliative care.

 

Also, the Collaborating Center for public programs of palliative care of the ICO who has supported to 52 countries. Has also been pioneering the social programme for the comprehensive care of people with diseases advanced the work of “La Caixa”, that you have deployed teams of psychosocial-spiritual care, and the Chair in palliative care of UVic- UCC / ICO, It was the first State in this theme.

 

The charge to Gomez-Batiste's who is newly created and assumes the maximum responsibility in palliative care who, from the resolution 67/19 the World Health Assembly of 24 in May of 2014 It urges Governments to design and implement programmes of palliative care that improve the quality of life of people who have advanced chronic illnesses and their families. Gomez-Batiste will be responsible for the creation of a group of experts who design a program of hospice care of international scope. Will be the founding meeting in the city of Barcelona.

 

 

 

Idibell.cat [en línea] Barcelona (ESP): idibell.cat, 24 de noviembre de 2014 [REF. 19 November of 2014] Available on Internet:http://modul/noticies/es/737/xavier-gomez-batiste-ha-sido-nombrado-nuevo-maximo-responsable-de-cuidados-paliativos-de-la-oms www.idibell.cat/



Typhoid gene unravelled

20 11 2014

People who carry a particular type of gene have natural resistance against typhoid fever according to new research published in Nature Genetics.

Lead researcher, Dr Sarah Dunstan from the Nossal Institute of Global Health at the University of Melbourne said the study is the first large-scale, unbiased search for human genes that affect a persons risk of typhoid.

Typhoid is a health burden to lower income countries- www.ecofriend.com

Enteric fever, or typhoid fever as it more commonly known, is a considerable health burden to lower-income countries.

This finding is important because this natural resistance represents one of the largest human gene effects on an infectious disease.

"We screened the human genome to look for genes associated with susceptibility to, or resistance from typhoid., "Dr Dunstan said.

"We found that carrying a particular form of the HLA-DRB1 gene provides natural resistance against typhoid fever.This gene codes for a receptor that is important in the immune response, by recognising proteins from invading bacteria. "

Typhoid is contracted, by consuming food or water contaminated with the bacteria, Salmonella Typhi or Paratyphi. It has been estimated that typhoid causes 200,000 deaths a year globally, and infects 26.9 million people per year.

"If we can understand this natural mechanism of disease resistance, then we can use this knowledge to help develop improved vaccines for typhoid fever, but also potentially for other invasive bacterial disease,”

Better treatments and vaccines are needed for typhoid fever as the infecting bacteria are getting increasingly more resistant to antibiotic treatment, and the current vaccine is only moderately effective and does not protect against paratyphoid fever, which is increasing within Asia.

This work was conducted in patients from Vietnam with findings then replicated in independent patient cohorts from Vietnam and Nepal

The research collaboration was between the Genome Institute of Singapore and Oxford University Clinical Research Units in Vietnam and Nepal.

 

 

Newsroom.melbourne.edu [en línea] Melbourne (AUS): newsroom.melbourne.edu, 20 de noviembre de 2014 [REF. 10 November of 2014] Available on Internet:http://newsroom.melbourne.edu/news/typhoid-gene-unravelled



Simple and strong predictor of diabetes risk found

17 11 2014

McMaster University researchers have discovered a simple way to predict an adult’ s future risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes.

The study, published in the journal Diabetologia, found that the blood glycaemia level at one hour after drinking a glucose solution of 75 grams beats every known Type 2 diabetes prediction model published to date.

From left: David Meyre, associate professor, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and Akram Aaliyah, a PhD student in computational science at McMaster

 

“Having the one-hour plasma glucose (1h-PG) information alone is sufficient to identify people who are more at risk for developing Type 2 diabetes in the future,” said David Meyre, the paper’ s senior author and an associate professor in the Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics at McMaster’ s Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine. “Only 30% of non-diabetic middle-aged adults in the study displayed a high 1h-PG (higher than 8.9 mmol/l), but they accounted for 75% of all future diabetic cases”.

“This measurement, known as one-hour plasma glucose (1h-PG), may help to identify high-risk subjects in the general population for inclusion in Type 2 diabetes prevention programs.”

He added that such prevention programs, if applied on a global scale, may save billions of dollars and improve the lives of millions of people.

This is important as the prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes has more than doubled globally over the past 30 years, and the rate of death among patients with diabetes is about twice as high as among those without it. Problems related to the disease include blindness, heart attacks, kidney disease and infections leading to amputations.

Meyre added: “Applying mass screening programs in populations and enrolling people at risk in a simple and inexpensive lifestyle modification program, in cooperation with the family doctor, may prevent up to half of future Type 2 diabetes cases.

“Another exciting perspective worth investigating is whether 1h-PG predicts future complications of Type 2 diabetes.”

Using new mathematical methods to capture data on nearly 5,000 northern Europeans from two independent longitudinal studies, the researchers found that 1h-PG alone outperformed the popular but more complicated prediction models based on multiple clinical risk factors, including age, sex, body mass index and family history of diabetes.

The research team, which included colleagues from McMaster and universities in Lund, Sweden, and Helsinki, Finland, wrote that the value of the 1h-PG for Type 2 diabetes prediction in multi-ethnic longitudinal studies still needs to be assessed because the rate of the disease varies by ethnicity. However, they are fairly confident in the transferability of their results to other populations.

“Colleagues from the University of Texas recently reported that one-hour plasma glucose was predictive of future Type 2 diabetes risk in Mexican Americans and this is encouraging,” said Akram Aaliyah, the study’ s first author and a PhD student in computational science at McMaster.

The study was funded by several research foundations, hospitals and universities in Finland and Sweden. Meyre holds a Canada Research Chair in Genetic Epidemiology.

 

Study article: Modelling of OGTT curve identifies 1 h plasma glucose level as a strong predictor of incident type 2 Diabetes: results from two prospective cohorts (Diabetologia)


 

Fhs.mcmaster.ca [en línea] Hamilton, ON (CAN): fhs.mcmaster.ca, 17 November of 2014 [REF. 14 October of 2014] Available on Internet:http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/main/news/news_2014/predictor_of_diabetes_risk_study.html



Gene inhibitor, salmon fibrin restore function lost in spinal cord injury

13 11 2014

UCI Reeve-Irvine researchers identify novel combination treatment

A therapy combining salmon fibrin injections into the spinal cord and injections of a gene inhibitor into the brain restored voluntary motor function impaired by spinal cord injury, scientists at UC Irvine's Reeve-Irvine Research Center have found.

In a study on rodents, Gail Lewandowski and Oswald Steward achieved this breakthrough by turning back the developmental clock in a molecular pathway critical to the formation of corticospinal tract nerve connections and providing a scaffold so that neuronal axons at the injury site could grow and link up again.

Oswald Steward is director of the Reeve-Irvine Research Center at UCI

Results appear in the July 23 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience.

The work expands on previous research at UCI. In 2010, Steward helped discover that axons flourish after the deletion of an enzyme called PTEN, which controls a molecular pathway regulating cell growth. PTEN activity is low during early development, allowing cell proliferation. PTEN subsequently turns on, inhibiting this pathway and precluding any ability to regenerate.

Two years later, a UCI team found that salmon fibrin injected into rats with spinal cord injury filled cavities at the injury site, giving axons a framework in which to reconnect and facilitate recovery. Fibrin is a stringy, insoluble protein produced by the blood clotting process and is used as a surgical glue.

"This is a major next step in our effort to identify treatments that restore functional losses suffered by those with spinal cord injury,"said Steward, professor of anatomy & neurobiology and director of the Reeve-Irvine Research Center, of the current findings. "Paralysis and loss of function from spinal cord injury has been considered irreversible, but our discovery points the way toward a potential therapy to induce regeneration of nerve connections. "

In their study, he and Lewandowski treated rodents with impaired hand movement due to spinal cord injury with a combination of salmon fibrin and a PTEN inhibitor called AAVshPTEN. A separate group of rodents got only AAVshPTEN.

The researchers saw that rats receiving the inhibitor alone did not exhibit improved motor function, whereas those given AAVshPTEN and salmon fibrin recovered forelimb use involving reaching and grasping.

"The data suggest that the combination of PTEN deletion and salmon fibrin injection into the lesion can significantly enhance motor skills by enabling regenerative growth of corticospinal tract axons,"Steward said.

According to the Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation, about 2 percent of Americans have some form of paralysis resulting from spinal cord injury, due primarily to the interruption of connections between the brain and spinal cord.

An injury the size of a grape can lead to complete loss of function below the site of occurrence. For example, an injury to the neck can cause paralysis of the arms and legs, an absence of sensation below the shoulders, bladder and bowel incontinence, sexual dysfunction, and secondary health risks such as susceptibility to urinary tract infections, pressure sores and blood clots due to an inability to move the legs.

Steward said the next objective is to learn how long after injury the combination treatment can be effectively administered. "It would be a huge step if it could be delivered in the chronic period weeks and months after an injury, but we need to determine this before we can engage in clinical trials,” he said.

Lewandowski is a project scientist in the Reeve-Irvine Research Center. The study received support from the National Institutes of Health (grant R01 NS047718) and donations from Cure Medical and Unite 2 Fight Paralysis.

About the Reeve-Irvine Research Center: The mission of the Reeve-Irvine Research Center is to find new treatments for spinal cord injury through the collaborative research and educational efforts of prominent scientists and clinicians both at UCI and around the world. For more information, visit www.reeve.uci.edu.

 

 

News.uci.edu [en línea] Irvine, CA (USA): news.uci.edu, 13 November of 2014 [REF. 23 in July of 2014] Available on Internet:http://news.uci.edu/press-releases/gene-inhibitor-salmon-fibrin-restore-function-lost-in-spinal-cord-injury/



Researchers measured for the first time a property of DNA

10 11 2014

The capacity of electric polarization of DNA is a fundamental property that directly affects its biological functions. However, Despite the importance of this property has not been possible to measure it until now.

In a study published today in PNAS researchers at the Institute for bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC) directed by Laura Fumagalli, senior researcher in the IBEC and Professor at the University of Barcelona (UB), and colleagues from the Institute of biomedical research (IRB), of the Barcelona Supercomputing Center-Centro Nacional de Supercomputación (BSC-CNS), National Center of biotechnology (CNB-CSIC) and the IMDEA Institute of nanoscience in Madrid, describe how you have found a way to directly measure the ability of electric polarization of DNA – represented by its dielectric constant that indicates how a material reacts to the application of an electric field – for the first time in history.

Researchers have achieved it thanks to the use of their own technique, newly developed in the IBEC, based on the electrostatic force microscope (EFM, English electrostatic force microscopy). This type of microscope allows researchers to explore not only the morphology of individual biological complexes in its natural environment, but also to measure the electrostatic properties that make each object unique. However, so far this key property of DNA – capacity of electric polarization – It has remained unknown, due to the inherent difficulties to get such a measure given the complex structure of DNA.

The researchers have been able to quantify the dielectric constant of the DNA in a way non-invasively through the measurement of the DNA in their native state, condensate, within a Bacteriophage – a virus that infects and replicates in bacteria. The special nature of these viruses means carrying genetic information condensed in a tiny package, which means that they keep the DNA in a nearly crystalline structure that researchers were able to dissect to determine the dielectric constants of the main components; the cover of protein and DNA.

The results show that the dielectric constant of the DNA is around 8, well above what is often assumed, and the researchers confirm this value based on very precise theoretical calculations, using atomistic computational tools of last generation and computational resources of the Barcelona Supercomputing Center-Centro Nacional de Supercomputación calculations resulted in almost the same value, around 8, that coincides with experimental observations.

“Our experiments and calculations reveal an owner of DNA that allow realistic prediction of its formation and its functions on the basis of computational tools and help us to better understand the essential functions that DNA plays in our body”, says Modesto Orozco, Head of the Assembly research programme in Computational Biology Institute for research in biomedicine-Barcelona Supercomputing Center, and Professor at the UB. “These experiments also open up new avenues to explore fundamental polarization properties of other biomolecules.”

 

Reference article: Ana Cuervo, Paul D. Dans, Jose L. Carrascosa, Modesto Orozco, Gabriel Gomila and Laura Fumagalli (2014). Direct measurement of the dielectric polarization properties of DNA. PNAS, Pub ahead of print

 

 

ibecbarcelona.eu [en línea] Barcelona (ESP): ibecbarcelona.EU, 10 November of 2014 [REF. 18 in August of 2014] Available on Internet: http://NOTICIAS-DE-INVESTIGACION/investigadores-miden-por-primera-vez-una-propiedad-del-adn.html www.ibecbarcelona.eu/



Possible Alternative to Bariatric Weight Loss Surgery

6 11 2014

An experimental procedure successfully tested in obese laboratory rats may provide a less-invasive alternative to bariatric weight-loss surgery, researchers report online in Endocrinology.

Scientists at Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center used a catheter to re-direct the flow of bile from the bile duct into the small intestine, producing the same metabolic and weight-loss benefits as bariatric surgeries such as gastric by-pass. They named the procedure bile diversion, or BD.

 

"This may lead to novel ways to treat obesity related conditions,"said lead investigator, Rohit Kohli, MBBS, MS, a physician and researcher in the Division of Gastroenterology at Cincinnati Childrens. "Our results provide compelling evidence that manipulation of bile acids is sufficient to recreate the key effects of bariatric procedures, including gastric bypass, and may be especially beneficial to people with obesity related liver dysfunction. "

 

Bariatric surgery has become an important therapeutic option for morbid obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastric bypass surgery is associated with sustained weight loss and reduced overall mortality in patients. Still, the invasive procedure – which involves altering the gastrointestinal anatomy of patients – also comes with medical risks.

 

Physicians also do not fully understand the biological mechanisms that produce the post-surgical benefits of procedures like gastric bypass. It is theorized that elevated levels of bile acids detected in the blood of patients trigger molecular processes that may help improve metabolism and energy expenditure.

 

In the current study, Kohli and his collaborators – which included researchers at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine – worked from the hypothesis that diverting bile acid in obese rats would recreate the benefits of bariatric surgery.

 

Male rats with diet-induced obesity received either the bile diversion procedure or a sham surgery in which the bile duct was dissected. A third group of animals did not undergo surgery and were also used as an experimental control group. Researchers then compared the metabolic effects of bile diversion, sham surgery and no surgery for five weeks as rats in all three groups were fed high-fat diets.

 

Rats undergoing bile diversion had elevated levels of bile acids in their blood and exhibited increased weight loss, reduced fat mass, improved glucose tolerance and reduced liver fat. These characteristics were not observed in the sham or "no surgery" groups.

 

Kohli said the researchers will use their findings to further explore how bile diversion and increased bile acids in the blood drive molecular signaling pathways leading to metabolic improvement and weight loss. While emphasizing that extensive additional research is still required, Kohli added an eventual goal is to develop therapeutic agents that can produce the same benefits as bariatric surgery without patients having to go through surgical procedures that alter intestinal anatomy.

 

Funding support for the study came from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases grants (K08 DK084310-03, U01 DK08505, P30 DK078392) and from Ethicon Endo-Surgery.

 

Cincinnatichildrens.org [en línea] Cincinnati, OH (USA): cincinnatichildrens.org, 07 November of 2014 [REF. 01 in May of 2013] Available on Internet: http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/news/release/2013/bariatric-surgery-obesity-4-30-2013/



School-based screening for eating disorders

3 11 2014

School-based screening for eating disorders could improve detection and outcomes.

A brief screening survey to identify teens at risk for an eating disorder could lead to earlier diagnosis and help find hard-to-detect cases, which could lower overall treatment costs and improve outcomes, Boston Childrens Hospital researchers report today in American Journal of Public Health.

"Many cases of eating disorders go undetected for years. This may be because the stereotype that the typical teen with an eating disorder is a thin, affluent, white female. In reality, eating disorders come in all shapes and sizes and both genders, and they affect people from all racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds,” says Kendrin Are. Sonneville, ScD, RD, senior study author from Boston Children Division of Adolescent Medicine.

Eating disorders—anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder—are under diagnosed and under treated, particularly among low-income, minority, overweight and male teens. Only 3 to 28 percent of teens with eating disorders receive treatment for their condition. Moreover, interventions for eating disorders, such as residential treatment and lengthy therapy, tend to be very expensive. Teens with untreated eating disorders face medical complications, hospitalization and higher risk of early death.

The combination of under diagnosis, under treatment and high treatment costs has generated support for school-based screening, which could help identify teens with eating disorders. “However, the cost-effectiveness of school-based screening for eating disorders had not been demonstrated previously,"says Sonneville.

In order to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a school-based screening program, Sonneville and colleagues devised a computer simulation comparing annual screening of 10- to 17-year-olds to a no-screening scenario.

The researchers found that the 5-question survey boosted detection and treatment for eating disorders. Implementing a school-based screening program is a bargain in terms of time and money; screening costs $0.35 per student, and the survey can be scored in a few minutes.

"School-based screening for eating disorders is very likely a cost-effective approach to improving the health of teens. Early diagnosis leads to early treatment, which means these youth will get better faster and oftentimes avoid the long-term damage to their health and lives that the eating disorders can cause,"says Sonneville. "A simple screening for eating disorders in schools could give millions of kids a new chance for a healthy life."

 

 

Childrenshospital.org [en línea] Boston, MA (USA): childrenshospital.org, 03 November of 2014 [REF. 18 in July of 2014] Available on Internet: http://www.childrenshospital.org/news-and-events/2014/july-2014/school-based-screening-for-eating-disorders-could-improve-detection-and-outcomes