Smart Monitor: the clock that warns of epileptic seizures

26 02 2015

Smart Monitor It is the name of an American company that has recently brought to market a “Smart clock” oriented to epileptic patients, especially children. The watch in question has sensors to detect associated with epileptic seizures. The clock is also equipped with a GPS and cooperates with the user's mobile phone to alert caregivers of the child / person carrying it over. Their parents, family, or health services.

When the watch identifies an epileptic, using the mobile phone of the user (It now only supports Android, in March of this year there will also be an iPhone version) to send alert messages to the contacts that have been programmed into the clock. These alert messages include GPS coordinates and even a map indicating the position of the person who is suffering the attack.

 

The clock also initiates a call to the specified contact number, and it puts the phone in hands-free mode. In addition, during the epileptic seizure records the movements of the patient, information that can be used later for diagnostic purposes by medical personnel.

 

The most common use of this clock scenario would be one in which a child who suffers from epilepsy receives parents watch, as a mechanism for parents can help the child if you have an attack when it is, for example, playing in the park or, in general, out of home and school.

Promotional video for the company that is behind this watch:

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Ingenieriabiomedica.org [en línea] unknown (ESP): ingenieriabiomedica.org, 26 de febrero de 2015 [REF. ? de febrero de 2015] Available on Internet:http://www.ingenieriabiomedica.org/ #!Smart-monitor-El-reloj-que-alerta-sobre-ataques-epilepticos/c221y/c40eb42f-07AD-449F-B09B-FAA34D40F6B3



Designed a Nicotine Vaccine that Provokes Robust Immune Response

23 02 2015

TSRI scientists design Nicotine Vaccine that provokes robust immune response

 Insights Could Help Scientists Develop Treatments for Smoking as Well as Other Addictions

 

Kim Janda is the Ely R. Callaway Jr. Professor of Chemistry and member of the Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology at The Scripps Research Institute. (Photo by John Dole, courtesy of TSRI.)

When a promising nicotine vaccine failed in clinical trials a few years ago, scientists from The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) were determined to keep trying to help smokers overcome their addiction.

Now the team has designed a more effective nicotine vaccine and proven that the structures of molecules used in vaccines is critical. The study was published recently in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry.

"This study provides new hope that one could make a nicotine vaccine that succeeds in clinical trials,"said Kim Janda, the Ely R. Callaway Jr. Professor of Chemistry and member of the Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology at TSRI.

 

Targeting Nicotine

According to the National Cancer Institute, smoking is the leading cause of eight types of cancer, including lung cancer and fast-moving pancreatic cancer.

Nicotine vaccines train the body to see nicotine as a foreign invader. To prompt this immune response, scientists have tried attaching nicotine derivatives called haptens to a larger carrier protein used in other approved vaccines.

The body reacts to the vaccine by creating antibodies to bind specifically to nicotine molecules. When a person later uses tobacco, the anti-nicotine antibodies stop the nicotine molecules from entering the central nervous system and ever reaching the brain.

Though a vaccine wouldn't be a silver bullet—there would still be withdrawal symptoms—a person may be less motivated to relapse because the brains reward system could no longer react to nicotine.

The problem with the previous nicotine vaccine, which only worked in 30 percent of patients, was that it did not single out the most common form of nicotine for attack. Nicotine has two forms that look like mirror images of each other—one is a "right-handed" version and one is a "left-handed" version. Even though 99 percent of the nicotine found in tobacco is the left-handed version, the previous vaccine elicited antibodies against both.

Janda believes that was a waste of immune response. "This is a case where something very simple was overlooked,” he said.

 

Improving the Response

In the new study, the researchers elicited a more robust antibody response by creating a vaccine from only left-handed nicotine haptens. To do this, they prepared haptens as a 50-50 mixture and as pure right-handed or pure left-handed versions of nicotine, so they could use the two versions together or separately.

They tested both versions and the 50-50 mix in rat models, injecting the rats three times over 42 days. This series of "booster" shots gave the animals ' immune systems a chance to create an effective number of antibodies to respond to nicotine.

The researchers analyzed blood from the three experimental groups and found that the left-handed hapten elicited a much more effective immune response. Compared with the right-handed hapten vaccine, the left-handed hapten vaccine prompted the body to create four times as many antibodies against left-handed nicotine molecules. The 50-50 mix was only 60 percent as effective as the pure left-handed version.

"This shows that future vaccines should target that left-handed version,"said Jonathan Lockner, research associate in the Janda lab and first author of the new paper. "There might even be more effective haptens out there."

The researchers believe purifying nicotine hapten mixtures is an important and practical step in creating future nicotine vaccines. Janda said considering molecule handed-ness is also critical for developing vaccines against other drugs of abuse, such as cocaine and heroin.

"This is just one area where we are looking outside the box to try to treat addiction,"Janda said.

In addition to Janda and Lockner, other authors of the paper, "A Conjugate Vaccine Using Enantiopure Hapten Imparts Superior Nicotine-Binding Capacity,"were Jenny M. Lively and Karen C. Collins of TSRI, and Janaína C. M. Vendruscolo and Marc are. Azar of Behavioral Pharma Inc. For more information, see http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm501625j.

Funding for the research came from the Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program (20XT-0156).

 

About The Scripps Research Institute

The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) is one of the world’ s largest independent, not-for-profit organizations focusing on research in the biomedical sciences. TSRI is internationally recognized for its contributions to science and health, including its role in laying the foundation for new treatments for cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, hemophilia, and other diseases. An institution that evolved from the Scripps Metabolic Clinic founded by philanthropist Ellen Browning Scripps in 1924, the institute now employs about 3,000 people on its campuses in La Jolla, CA, and Jupiter, FL, where its renowned scientists—including two Nobel laureates—work toward their next discoveries. The institute's graduate program, which awards PhD degrees in biology and chemistry, ranks among the top ten of its kind in the nation. For more information, see www.scripps.edu.

 

For information:Office of Communications Tel: 858-784-2666 Fax: 858-784-8136 
press@scripps.edu

 

 

Scripps.edu [en línea] La Jolla, CA (USA): scripps.edu, 23 de febrero de 2015 [REF. 12 in January of 2015] Available on Internet:http://www.scripps.edu/news/press/2015/20150112janda.html



Neuroscience researchers believe in quitting smoking gradually

19 02 2015

Researchers at the University of Copenhagen have studied the immediate reaction in the brain after quitting smoking. At just 12 hours after kicking the habit, the oxygen uptake and blood flow in the brain decrease significantly compared to never-smokers. This could explain why it is so difficult to say goodbye to nicotine once and for all. The findings have been published in the Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism.

 

Smoking is harmful in almost every respect. Cancer, stroke, and other cardiovascular diseases are just a small part of a well-documented portfolio of serious consequences of smoking

Smoking is harmful in almost every respect. Cancer, stroke, and other cardiovascular diseases are just a small part of a well-documented portfolio of serious consequences of smoking. Nicotine is what makes smoking addictive, but new Danish research suggests that smoking initially increases brain activity. However, the brain tissue quickly adapts and the effect will disappear. On the other hand, according to brain scans, the brain’ s oxygen uptake and blood flow decreases by up to 17% immediately after people stop smoking:

“Regular smokers experience an almost dementia-like condition in the early hours after quitting, as suggested by brain scans. This can be quite an unpleasant experience, and is probably one of the reasons why it can be very difficult to quit smoking once and for all. Smokers drift back into abuse, perhaps not to obtain a pleasant effect – that ship has sailed – but simply because the withdrawal symptoms are unbearable,” says Professor Albert Gjedde, neuroscience researcher at the Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen. Together with Associate Professor Manouchehr Seyedi Vafaee from the same department and other scientists, Albert Gjedde is behind the new findings published in the Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism.

The researchers compare the nicotine in tobacco smoke with other pharmacologically active substances:

“After a period of time, many users of medicine will no longer experience an effect from treatment – for example with antidepressants. However, the consequences of discontinuing treatment could still be overwhelming if the withdrawal symptoms are very unpleasant,” says Albert Gjedde.

Habitual smokers seemingly need to continue smoking just to keep their brain functioning normally. With time, they may become less dependent on smoking, but the researchers still do not know how long it takes before the brain of a former smoker has regained its normal energy consumption and blood flow:

“We assume that it takes weeks or months, but we do not know for sure. The new findings suggest that it may be a good idea to stop smoking gradually – simply to avoid the worst withdrawal symptoms that make it so difficult to stick to the otherwise very sensible decision to stop smoking,” says Albert Gjedde. He emphasises that there are still many blind spots in relation to researching the brains of smokers.

Contact: Professor Albert Gjedde Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology Mobile: +45 29 17 76 01Mail: gjedde@sund.ku.dk

 

 

News.ku.dk [en línea] Copenhagen (DK): news.ku.dk, 19 de febrero de 2015 [REF. 27 in January of 2015] Available on Internet:http://news.ku.dk/all_news/2015/01/neuroscience-researchers-believe-in-quitting-smoking-gradually/



Major cause of blindness linked to calcium deposits in the eye

16 02 2015

Microscopic spheres of calcium phosphate have been linked to the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a major cause of blindness, by UCL-led research.

 

Thousands of hydroxyapatite spheres (magenta), each just a few microns across, are found in large drusen deposits within the eye (credit: Imre Lengyel, UCL)

AMD affects 1 in 5 people over 75, causing their vision to slowly deteriorate, but the cause of the most common form of the disease remains a mystery. * The ability to spot the disease early and reliably halt its progression would improve the lives of millions, but this is simply not possible with current knowledge and techniques.

The latest research, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has implicated tiny spheres of mineralised calcium phosphate, ' hydroxylapatite ', in AMD progression. This not only offers a possible explanation for how AMD develops, but also opens up new ways to diagnose and treat the disease.

AMD is characterised by a build-up of mainly protein and fat containing deposits called ' drusen ' in the retina, which can prevent essential nutrients from reaching the eyes light-sensitive cells, ' photoreceptors '. Photoreceptors are regularly recycled by cellular processes, creating waste products, but drusen can trap this ' junk ' inside the retina, worsening the build-up. Until now, nobody understood how drusen formed and grew to clinically relevant size.

The new study shows that tiny calcium-based hydroxyapatite, commonly found in bones and teeth, could explain the origin of drusen. The researchers believe that these spheres attract proteins and fats to their surface, which build up over years to form drusen. Through post-mortem examination of 30 eyes from donors between 43 and 96 years old, the researchers used fluorescent dyes to identify the tiny spheres, just a few microns – thousandths of a millimetre – across.

"We found these miniscule hollow spheres inside all of the eyes and all the deposits that we examined, from donors with and without AMD,"explains Dr Imre Lengyel, Senior Research Fellow at the UCL Institute of Ophthalmology and Honorary Research Fellow at Moorfields Eye Hospital, who led the study. "Eyes with more of these spheres contained more drusen. The spheres appear long before drusen become visible on clinical examination.

"The fluorescent labeling technique that we used can identify the early signs of drusen build-up long before they become visible with current methods. The dyes that we used should be compatible with existing diagnostic machines. If we could develop a safe way of getting these dyes into the eye, we could advance AMD diagnoses by a decade or more and could follow early progression more precisely. "

Some of the mineral spheres identified in the eye samples were coated with amyloid beta, which is linked to Alzheimers disease. If a technique were developed to identify these spheres for AMD diagnosis, it may also aid early diagnosis of Alzheimer. Whether these spheres are a cause or symptom of AMD is still unclear, but their diagnostic value is significant either way. As drusen are hallmarks of AMD, then strategies to prevent build-up could potentially stop AMD from developing altogether.

"The calcium-based spheres are made up of the same compound that gives teeth and bone their strength, so removal may not be an option,"says Dr Lengyel. “However, if we could get to the spheres before the fat and protein build-up, we could prevent further growth. This can already be done in the lab, but much more work is needed before this could be translated into patients. "

"Our discovery opens up an exciting new avenue of scientific research into potential new diagnostics and treatments, but this is only the beginning of a long road. "says Dr Richard Thompson, the main international collaborator from the University of Maryland School of Medicine, USA.

The work was supported by the Bill Brown Charitable Trust, Moorfields Eye Hospital, Mercer Fund from Fight for Sight, and the Bright Focus Foundation. The UCL-led international collaboration involved researchers from the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Imperial College London, the University of Tübingen, George Mason University, Fairfax, and the University of Chicago.

 

Ucl.ac.uk [en línea] London (UK): ucl.ac.uk, 16 de febrero de 2015 [REF. 20 in January of 2015] Available on Internet:http://www.ucl.ac.uk/news/news-articles/0115/200115-macular-degeneration-linked-to-calcium



New combination of oral drugs effective against the virus of hepatitis C in patients with HIV

12 02 2015

Between 130 y 150 millones de personas en el mundo están infectadas por el virus de la hepatitis C (HCV) y, of these, around 5 millions are also by the HIV virus. A study published in the prestigious journalThe Lancetdemonstrates efficacy in the treatment of HCV in patients co-infected with HIV with the combined use of two drugs administered oral or mono during 12 weeks. This work has involved Dr. Josep Mallolas, consultant service of infectious diseases at the Hospital Clinic and research the Group IDIBAPS infectious diseases and AIDS. The Clinic has been the only Spanish Center who participated in this study.

All patients with HCV, both infected monkey as co-infected by HIV, they are at risk of the complications arising from the disease and end up requiring a liver transplant. In addition, in patients with HIV viral load is high, the disease progresses more rapidly and there are fewer treatment options.

In this international multicenter phase II study were administered antiviral two,grazoprevir and elbasvir, with or without Ribavirin, during 8 o 12 weeks to 218 hepatitis C in previously untreated patients (159 with HCV and 59 co-infected by HIV). Administer this treatment in parallel with mono and co-infected patients is innovative, Since patients with HIV are often involved in independent clinical trials. Like this, This is a unique opportunity to determine role for HIV infection in response to HCV treatment.

The results indicate that the therapeutic regimen was well tolerated and, past the 12 weeks, between the 87 and the 98% participants in the study had a number of hepatitis C virus RNA lower to 25 IU/ml, indicating a virological response sustained or, What is the same, cured hepatitis C. This response was similar both for mono infected as the co-infected patients, suggesting that this combination of drugs provides a safe and effective treatment option for the two groups of patients.

With these promising results of treatment of hepatitis with only 12 weeks of treatment and with a very good tolerance, they have already launched several phase III clinical trials that evaluated the effectiveness of this therapeutic guideline in one larger number of patients.

The article reference:

Efficacy and safety of 8 weeks versus 12 weeks of treatment with grazoprevir (MK-5172) and elbasvir (MK-8742) with or without ribavirin in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 Mono-infection and HIV/hepatitis C virus co-infection (C WORTHY): a randomised, open-label phase 2 trial

SULKOWSKI M, Hezode C, Gerstoft J, Vierling JM, Mallolas J, Pol S, Kugelmas M, Murillo A, Weis N, Nahas Are, Shibolet O, Serfaty L, Bourliere M, DeJesus E, Zuckerman and, F Dutko, M Shaughnessy, Hwang P, Howe AY, J Wahl, M Robertson, Barr E, Have B.

Lancet. 2014 Nov 11. PII: S0140-6736(14)61793-1. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61793-1. [Epub ahead of print]

 

Hubc.UB.edu [en línea] Barcelona (ESP): aip.org, 12 de febrero de 2015 [REF. 20 in January of 2015] Available on Internet:http://hubc.ub.edu/es/el-hubc/actualidad/noticias/una-nueva-combinacion-de-farmacos-orales-demuestra-su-eficacia-contra-el



Artificial blood vessels

9 02 2015

Researchers at Shanghai University create tri-layered artificial blood vessels for the first time

By combining micro-imprinting and electro-spinning techniques, researchers at Shanghai University Rapid Manufacturing Engineering Center have developed a vascular graft composed of three layers for the first time. This tri-layered composite has allowed researchers to utilize separate materials that respectively possess mechanical strength and promote new cell growth – a significant problem for existing vascular grafts that have only consisted of a single or double layer.

Vascular grafts are surgically attached to an obstructed or otherwise unhealthy blood vessel to permanently redirect blood flow, such as in coronary bypass surgery. Traditional grafts work by repurposing existing vessels from the patient's own body or from a suitable donor. However, these sources are often insufficient for a patient's needs because of the limited supply in a patient's body, and may be afflicted by the same underlying conditions that necessitate the graft in the first place. Accordingly, there has been a great deal of research towards developing synthetic vessels that can mimic natural ones, allowing new cells to grow around them and then degrade away, thereby creating new vessels.

“The composite vascular grafts could be better candidates for blood vessel repair,” said Bunyan Look it up, an associate professor at the Rapid Manufacturing Engineering Center. Liu's team had previously worked with bone scaffolds, which are used to repair bone defects, before turning their attention to cardiovascular disease, and thus vascular grafts. They describe their current research in the journal AIP Advances, from AIP Publishing.

As a rule, surrogate scaffolds need to mimic the natural vasculature of their targeted tissue as much as possible. For blood vessel surrogates, this structural mimicry can be fabricated by electrospinning, a process which uses an electrical charge to draw liquid inputs – here a mixture of chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol – into incredibly fine fibers. Electrospinning also allows for a high surface-to-volume ratio of nanofibers, providing ample space for host cells to grow and connect. These components all naturally degrade within six months to a year, leaving behind a new, intact blood vessel.

 

The resulting structure, however, isn't very rigid – the fly in the ointment for many previous models. To compensate for this, the researchers designed a three-layer model, in which the mixture was electrospun onto both sides of a microimprinted middle layer of poly-p-dioxanone, a biodegradable polymer commonly used in biomedical applications. The ends of this sheet were then folded and attached to make a tube-like vessel.

Look it up and her team then seeded the scaffold with rat fibroblast cells, which are ideal candidates because of their ease of cultivation and quick growth rate, to test the scaffold's efficacy in promoting cellular expansion and integration. The researchers found that the cells on these composite scaffolds proliferated quickly, likely due to the functional amino and hydroxyl groups introduced by the chitosan.

While a good deal of work remains before the prospect of human trials, Look it up and her group are optimistic about the future of their research. Their next project is to test the implants in an animal model, to observe the structure's efficacy with live vascular cells.

 

By John Arnst

 

Article title: Composite Vascular Repair Grafts via Micro-imprinting and Electrospinning

 

Aip.org [en línea] Melville, NEW YORK CITY (USA): aip.org, 09 de febrero de 2015 [REF. 03 de febrero de 2015] Available on Internet:http://www.aip.org/publishing/journal-highlights/artificial-blood-vessels



Podoconiosis a forgotten disease. Experience in Ethiopia.

5 02 2015
Laura Prieto was the III Conference of development cooperation and health of the Miguel Hernández University of Elche speaking the podoconiosis and their experience in Ethiopia in the month of harness of the 2014
This paper has been recorded and edited thanks to the services of educational innovation of the UMH, within the reported PLAN of the UMH.
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It has been a magnificent work of all
Thank you
José Manuel Ramos
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Information about volunteering in Hospital of Gambo: http://www.gambohospital.org/voluntariado/
 
 
Gambohospital.org [en línea] Arsi (ETH): gambohospital.org, 05 de febrero de 2015 [REF. 25 November of 2014] Available on Internet:http://blog/podoconiosis-una-enfermedad-olvidada-experiencia-en-etiopia/ www.gambohospital.org/



Showcase and the back room of our health system

2 02 2015

In the times that run the maintenance of the welfare State has become the hallmark of political identity for many people. It is taken for granted that your current design is basically correct and that the only thing to do is to preserve it. However, has very serious deficiencies or failures.

Take as an example the case of the health. In Spain there is a high degree of satisfaction with hospital care system, but the health care implies much more. A couple of months ago, for example, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Environment Programme presented a commissioned report to 16 specialists on the effects of endocrine disruptors, that are foreign to the organism chemical compounds but that can alter your hormonal balance; these compounds are widely used in the production of plastics and cosmetics, among other things. According to the authors of the I am a studentThese substances are a "global threat". The report suggests the existence of a 800 compounds suspected of producing alterations in hormonal regulation, in neuronal development, in the immune system, etc., and he warns that only "a small fraction" of them have been suitably analyzed.

Another example: by these same dates British health director-general, Sally Davies, alerted at the last annual report on the health system in that country that the over-consumption of antibiotics "is a threat more serious than climate change". This not only consumption is due to the high prescription and self-medication of the population, but above all to its use on farms, to prevent diseases as well as to accelerate the fattening of animals. In fact, According to a study published in a prestigious scientific journal (PNAS), the 73% antibiotics which are marketed in the U.S. food industry consumes them. Faced with this panorama, the Sra. Davies said: "We have to react quickly and begin to develop a record of the main risks to determine how deal". Let's go, We have way to go and there are many more examples like these.

Anyone hide you that, In addition to the drugs and the food we eat, most of the objects of consumption, like the clothes we wear, the detergents we use, appliances, mobile phones and other devices that we use in our daily life, they are constantly incorporating new compounds and materials, is to reduce their costs or to take advantage of the new possibilities provided by technological progress. And nor is hidden to us that, In addition, the production processes of most of these products extends all over the world, Thanks to globalization.

But, who controls this? Who guarantees us to citizens that what we buy at the store in the neighborhood, or that famous multinational chain hypermarket, It is properly controlled and not going to create problems someday? Who assures us that we are not playing Russian roulette with our health? Because it is evident that control all this also forms part, or should, of our national health system. Or not?

If I do a poll asking who is responsible for ensuring that what we eat or use in our daily lives is not harmful for our health, the vast majority of the citizens would designate, without the slightest doubt, the Administration in its broadest sense. AND, effectively, in a modern State is the administration which should provide us with this warranty. It is one of those tasks that justifies the role of the State. Not only in the aforementioned areas, but in many others of similar gravity; impact on health, in security and in so many other parcels of our life.

We are talking about, In short, the supervisor of the State function. Function that, Unfortunately, He only speaks when there is an accident, a disaster or a crisis. Like this, for example, It came in the wake of the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power (Japan) When to the European Union the burdens entered you to review European plant safety systems. We could put other examples relating to the industry of highly toxic products and the way in which these products are transported or environmental pollution generated by its manufacture and its possible spill. That by not going to other disparate areas, but current, as the financial system, where has the current crisis revealed his strident failures in the supervision of the State, both in Spain and in the rest of Europe and the United States.

But what matters now I emphasize is that all these problems have in common basically one thing: the oversights, omissions or mistakes in the exercise of the supervisory role which corresponded in every case. And probably the failure of media. Would it be possible to have an administration that exercised his function supervisor really effectively in all areas that apply? I do believe it, but of course that would mean talking about other administration and find the solution of some problems which has the current.

First of all, in each of the areas where exercising this oversight/supervision, the Administration should have professionals intimately familiar with the practices of the corresponding industry throughout its production chain, both in Spain and in other countries where there are suppliers or companies involved in that chain. If we think of the food industry, for example, means that the supervisory agency should have experts who know very well what are the agricultural practices used, What type of seeds are used, which insecticides and other chemicals are used, under what conditions is the water that irrigates, fertilizers, the soil, containers, etc.

To extend control by all the countries included in the production chain it would be logical, economy of resources, you resort to any formula of cooperation at European level and even the possibility of subcontracting auditing firms certified to do this.

Naturally, the Agency supervisor should also have laboratories to analyze the materials and components used. And should have the support of research teams able to identify the "side" effects, or long-term, that it may derive from the new ingredients, used materials or technologies. We think, for example, on genetically modified food: I want to believe that someone, qualified real, you have been researching, time that has been done is missing, about the possible side effects that might emerge at the end of 10 o 20 years, prior to authorizing their marketing so I buy it in the store in my neighborhood.

It is true that if this will be the end it would have serious repercussions for world trade, so we must find a reasonable balance between the level of risk assumed and the advantages of new products.

But, as I said, all this would require professionals seasoned in the guts of the operation of the sector of activity corresponding, In addition to the technical and economic appropriate means so that they can play their role. In my opinion, However, in many cases the Administration is far from these resources. Mainly because it would be quite expensive and, above all, because it would require a different and more flexible personnel management model. Un modelo en el que, for example, These experts could be selected and hired through a public tender in which primasen their knowledge and professional experience. Un modelo en el que,A model in whichld attract those experts paying each salary that required. As I have already said something about this on another occasion (hereand here) I will not expand more on this.

Of course, having good experts is necessary but not sufficient condition. Furthermore we have to count on good inspection systems (procedures, databases, indicators and early warning systems, etc.) and a disciplinary system that is effective, proportionate and dissuasive.

With everything, should be another tricky problem: How to avoid that the supervised sector corporations have a determining influence on the decisions of the supervisory agency. On the one hand, the supervisor has to listen to them and work with them to avoid falling into a system of excessive control that suffocating them. In the end are companies that create wealth. But on the other hand it is key supervisor to preserve its independence. And this is an issue that, probably, It will never be completely resolved. Either because those big business get government press officials of the supervisory agency, or because policy-makers and experts from the supervisor they aspire to be hired by those companies, or any murky process that serves to make a will. Of course, We have to think in a legal regime of incompatibilities, having well procedimentados the processes of decision making within the Agency supervisor attached to good internal audit systems, to provide a status of independence to the supervisory agency responsible for, etc.

In my opinion, Therefore, It would be perfectly possible to have the kind of administration that could satisfactorily exercise the supervisory role that corresponds in every field. But I recognize that it would be quite expensive. The issue is that we cannot afford the luxury of not having it. Why, When one speaks of the need to defend the welfare State, We should ask ourselves is what model of protecting our well-being is that suits us and what are our priorities.

If I got to the conclusion that, por ejemplo, with the meat we eat normally we are sobresaturando us of antibiotics, without knowing it or approve it, and that the day not prescribed them we will make us no effect by having abused both of them, do not us inquietará, talking about health, much more that, por ejemplo, the job stafor examplettending physician?

 

by Manuel Bautista Pérez

 

About Manuel Bautista Pérez

Aeronautical engineering from the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. In the public administration has been Director-General of Civil Aviation (2004-2009), Director General of the National Institute of meteorology (current state agency of meteorology) (1986-1996) and Advisor of the Minister of transport, among other positions. In the private sector, he has worked in the Anaya group, as Director General of the Division of multimedia companies, and the company Multimedia Resources as Director General. At the international level has been Vice-President of the World Meteorological Organization, Member of the Board of Directors of bodies like the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on climate change), EUMETSAT, Eurocontrol, etc., and it has worked for many Governments in Latin America as a consultant of the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank, strategic development.

 

 

Otraspoliticas.com [en línea] unknown (ESP): otraspoliticas.com, 02 de febrero de 2015 [REF. 24 April of 2013] Available on Internet:http://politica/el-escaparate-y-la-trastienda-de-nuestro-sistema-de-salud www.otraspoliticas.com/