Cost of Medical School

11 05 2015

Many people dream of becoming a doctor, but only a small percentage actually move down this path.

Those who are interested in this profession must answer a variety of questions, including but not limited to:

  • What type of doctor do I want to be?
  • How long will it take me to complete school?
  • What is the process of applying to medical school?
  • What is the average cost of attending medical school?
  • How long does it take, on average, for a doctor to pay back school loans?
  • What is the average doctor salary and career earnings?

While some people know the answers to each and every question, others are unsure of what the future holds and how they will be impacted if they continue to move forward with this career path.

For the sake of this article, we are going to focus on the financial side of becoming a doctor. This includes everything from the cost of medical school to how to secure financing for tuition to average salaries and career earnings.


Your Time in School and Training

To become a physician in the United States, you are required to complete many educational requirements.

As you get started, you must receive a four year degree from a college or university, typically in the area of science.

From there, you will move onto medical school. Known as an undergraduate medical education, this entails four years of education at an institution accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME). Upon completion, a student will earn a doctor of medicine degree.

Once medical school is complete, you will complete a residency program that lasts between three and seven years. From there, a fellowship is completed. This additional training is not required, but is for doctors who want to become highly specialized in a particular field.

As this is a lot of schooling, the cost of obtaining a medicine degree can quickly add up.


What is the Cost of Medical School?



Just the same as an undergraduate education, the cost of medical school differs from one institution to the next.

The Association of American Medical Colleges tracks the average cost of medical school, noting that during the 2013-14 school year, the annual tuition and fees at public medical schools averaged:

  • $31,783 for state residents
  • $55,294 for non-residents

Students who attend a private medical school find tuition and fees much higher, reaching:

  • $52,093 for state residents
  • $50,476 for non-residents

Use these approximate numbers, the average cost of medical school, over a four-year period, ranges from $127,132 on the low end to $221,176 on the high end.


How to Afford Medical School

Even though the cost of medical school can be high, loans, grants, and scholarships are available. Some are merit based, while others are need based.

Most medical students borrow some money to finance their education. The Association of American Medical Colleges noted that the "median debt for graduating students was $175,000.

There are many types of federal loans to consider, including the Stafford loan, Perkins loan, and PLUS loan.

Scholarships and grants are also available, both from the government as well as the individual institution. Any free money you receive will reduce the amount of debt you take on.


Average Salary

There is no denying the fact that medical school is expensive. As noted above, most students leave school with nearly $200,000 in debt.

Here is the good thing: doctors have a high earning potential, meaning that loans can be paid back sooner rather than later. From there, once the debt is gone, it is easy to realize that all of the schooling was worthwhile.

The Association of American Medical Colleges notes that the average salary for a family medicine doctor in 2013 was $161,000.

Forbes outlined the best and worst paying jobs for doctors, with orthopedic surgeons at the top of the list, thanks to an average salary of $519,000.


Final Word

The cost of medical school is extremely high. Furthermore, it takes many years for a student to complete the necessary education to become a doctor.

When everything is said and done, doctors are among the highest paid professionals. For many, this is enough to cancel out the cost of their education.



Article provided by:

Mr Sasha Boyd

Outreach Director [en línea] Seminole, FL (USA):, 11 in May of 2015 Available on Internet:


Dr Martinez Usero: The European vision on innovation in active and healthy ageing.

1 03 2014

Dr. Jose Angel Martinez Usero

Responsible for International Affairs, Funka Nu




From 2012 the European Commission is promoting a pilot project called the European innovation partnership on active and healthy ageing (EIPAHA[1]), in English "European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing".


The global challenge of the pilot is to increase the average of European life expectancy in 2 years before 2020. This would be a triple victory for Europe:

  • Improve the health and quality of life of European citizens, mostly of the elderly,
  • Support the sustainability and efficiency of health and social protection systems,
  • Increase the competitiveness of the European industry in this area getting expansion into new markets.

The priority is the aging


Active and healthy aging is a social challenge in all European countries, but also provides an opportunity, Since Europe can become a global leader capable of providing innovative solutions.

Different action groups in Europe


With one larger European population of 65 years, that will be of 85 millones en 2008 a 151 million in 2060, the context of European environments (buildings, cities, technological environments, etc.) It must adapt to the needs and preferences of older persons. In order to support a better quality of life and better social integration, the cities and regions of Europe will need to bet on the promotion of more active lifestyles, physically and mentally, providing infrastructure that is secure and accessible, promoting dignity and respect.


The cities and regions of Europe can not get these challenges in isolation, that's why building international networks for innovation, the development of projects and the generation of common action guides is crucial in this area.

In order to articulate the different key players Europeans and work in a coordinated and joint, the EIPAHA has been structured into several action groups[2].


Acciond4 Group on "Innovation in environments suitable for the elderly" has the challenge of adapting environments to a European population more and more aged.


The main objective of the Group of Acciond4 is to bring together organizations from across Europe who have a commitment to implement strategies for the creation of suitable environments that support active and healthy aging of population. This action group developed an initial Plan of action[3] in November of 2012, that is has been complemented by new organizations and their respective commitments, until you reach more of 100 organizations already engaged in working together.


How to participate in the EIPAHA and the Acciond4 group.


The initial to participate in EIPAHA step is to register as a member in This portal is the gateway to the activities that are underway in Europe. It's a true collaboration platform that can help your organization develop ideas and innovative projects in the field of active and healthy ageing.


In addition to reading the discussions of the Forum, search for relevant information, as events of interest, articles, good practices, operating procedures, etc., Members of EIPAHA can find partners to carry out initiatives, find initiatives to collaborate with other European organisations, and in general, be aware of what is moving in Europe in this regard.


The European Commission periodically launches invitations so that the organizations concerned to submit their projects or local/regional initiatives that support the actions of a plan of action. in March 2014, the Acciond4 group will open the possibility of new organizations to join with existing commitments in work coordinated in Europe. Para más información, You can contact the unit responsible for managing this group: Unit H2. Digital Social Platforms


Note: Funka Nu has been contracted by the European Commission during 2013 and 2014 to support the management of the Acciond4 group. For more information about this group of action, You can contact with


Dr MONGUET. Collective intelligence to identify the future.

3 02 2014

Josep M. Monguet Fierro

Professor at the UPC.


Now it is vowing to promises of recent information technologies will meet "ya". I read a few days ago that if the potential of the so-called Big Data applies to the health sector, the savings would be spectacular. Does it sound like you lyrics?


Often a simple concept is forgotten, fundamental technology, that is the diffusion curve. A curve, "in the form of"S”, It draws as the social use of technology spread, soft at the beginning, at some point take tilt, After a turning point, and at the end, after another inflection, again horizontal up to saturation. The hard part is placed in the temporary axis mentioned tipping points. As there is not a single technology, but many competing among them, each with its own diffusion curve, It is difficult to predict success on real dissemination .


It is useful to divide the "S" curve between 3 stadiums: scientific development, the availability of technology and commercial product. As more towards the side of development is technology more cost to use and less "outcomes" provides, but when it is commercial product opportunities of obtaining competitive advantages have begun to blur. These phases overlap between them, and the noise of the market – of all those who try to sell as soon possible – they make it very difficult to know what "time" is exactly each technology.


Is it possible to look to the future with some kind of logic? one possible answer is the implementation of strategies of collective intelligence. It's cost-effective way to combine knowledge with the right people, looking for practicality and anticipation about where and when of a technology. The important thing is not the claim of divining the future, on the other hand “inadivinable”, but invite you to think in a systematic and orderly way, exercising the dialogue and consensus.


Can we guess the future together?It has some sense to think that the future know it all, Since the future scenarios, basically, them build people. Grace is obviously to see how we can manage this collective intuition, and squeeze it in such a way that it generates meaning. This is what has become for example this year through the application "healthconsensus" prior to the annual meeting of the Health Plan in Sitges, to assess what you think an extensive collective of health professionals, about what will happen in 2015.


The future scenarios that we are able to build collective and collaborative have, by themselves, much interest, but we must insist that what matters is not so much the result obtained, as two things this exercise provides:

1. Learning that obtain “key people”, on the systematic reflection to modelling and stage the future.

2. The hybridization of knowledge, its junction with method and intent, between sectors and professional sensitivities.


The exercise of thinking systematically about the future it is clear that it is important and it is also evident that this little worked, and that is not being exploited in terms of leverage intelligence and/or collective intuition. Sometimes the future is written and we just don't want to read and much less discuss collectively. A very simple example. If the evolution of the European Innovation Scoreboard, manages a 30 variables, from the year 2000 It is easy to guess how to evolve the summary innovation index. If in 2008, with this data, and a few more, as for example the productivity, the Spanish situation is analyzed coldly, Discover the brutal loss of competitiveness, in a scenario of recession, also announced, allowed no doubt sense the disaster. This is however a critical key analysis, to give one example, but future projects should be in positive, and be driven to discover opportunities to our entrepreneurs.


Previous publications of the Dr JM Monguet iron in

Dr. Brugada: Involve patients

4 11 2013

Prof. Josep Brugada Terradellas

Medical Director, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona



Come from a healthcare system "paternalistic" where the patient downloaded all the responsibility for their health professionals who attended and was captive of decisions. These hardly bickered and accept them without answer also implicitly gives up to an active participation in the process of   prevention, diagnosis or treatment of the disease.

The progressive improvement in the information of the patients on the basis of the socialization of knowledge that has meant Internet and other means has led to that the requirements of patients with respect to participation in the process have increased. This clearly opens the door to the demand on the part of professionals and of the system to greater involvement of the patient in the care of their own health. No longer is worth to say that the professional you will charge to do what it takes to cure the disease. Now we can require the patient to take an active part in the whole process, that inevitably starts with the prevention of the disease through healthy eating habits, a healthy diet, carry out physical exercise regularly, avoid toxins such as tobacco and alcohol and be educated in the care necessary for their specific process.

We are going more and more towards the so-called P4 medicine: predictive, Prevention, personalized and participatory. Above all the new tools allow us to genetic gifts predictive advance the different possibilities of getting to be an individual. From healthy gifts to preventative and specific controls will prevent the occurrence of a disease or allow us to their early detection. Personalized because of genetic analysis and again we will be able to propose specific solutions for each patient depending on their own profile. Eventually the patient will be fundamental part gifts participatory decision-making, treatments and cures to disease process.

This is possibly the biggest innovation in medicine. The awareness on the part of individuals that the health and the disease is a process where their participation is crucial and that without them we are doomed to the collapse of the system. Maybe there will come a time when we'll have to question as a society if we can offer the best and most expensive treatments to everyone or only to those who are in charge of your health. It makes sense to make very expensive treatments to·alleviate the consequences of tobacco or alcohol if the individual in spite of all the medical support continues smoking or drinking? It makes sense to continue dealing with the complications of a disease if the patient does not meet the recommended treatment?

Are questions that surely we will do in the coming years and will have to respond from the professional side but also social, politics, human and economic.


Previous publications of Dr. Brugada to


7 10 2013

It is convenient to have to go through the tube?

El tubo



Pasando por el tubo

Passing through the tube


Luz al final del tubo

Light at the end of the tube


After which comes an interesting dilemma: is it convenient to, and even more so in these times that run, pass through the tube?

Thank you and happy way!

By Doctopolis.


Dr J. Gene: Patients should be involved in the development of clinical practice guidelines

2 09 2013

Joan Gene Badia

Médico de Familia

CAPSE-ICS- University of Barcelona



Clinical practice guidelines are the basic instrument to transfer the cooking generated by biomedical research to clinical practice. Are complex processing. They become scientific evidence specific recommendations whereas in addition the needs and the availability of resources of each environment. So far they have been basically developed by professionals, but we are becoming more aware that we must incorporate the patients in this process. This is a common practice in prestigious international agencies as the NICE (1) (National Institute of clinical excellence) British, and it should also be a common routine in our country. Unfortunately we too anchored in medical paternalism and are more backward than our European neighbours in health literacy of the population (2). But it is encouraging that more and more patients begin to say: “Nothing for me without me”. Encouraged that they wish to participate in all aspects that affect them, especially in the development of clinical practice guidelines since these instruments mark the type of care you will receive.

To advance this line, Health Guide, the Organization in charge of the Ministry of health clinical practice guidelines, Social services and equality has just published the methodological manual to incorporate patients developing clinical practice guidelines. The document (3) It shows that they can and should be involved in all phases of development of the Guide, Since the review of the scientific evidence to the making of recommendations. Its role is crucial since it contributes both the patient's perspective to address the aspects that interest them and care, to generate recommendations based on their values and preferences.

It is important that this document will serve to modify the process of elaboration of guidelines and clinical recommendations in our country. Only thus we will continue advancing in more adequate attention to the real needs of patients.



1)     NICE (National Institute of clinical

2)     forumclinicWorryingly, the level of literacy in Spanish population health

3)     Working group involvement of patients in the developing deGPC. Involvement of patients in the development of guidelines in clinical practice. Methodological manual. Clinical practice in the NHS guidelines. Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad . Ministry of health, Social services and equality emanuales/pacientes/documentos/manual_pacientes.pdf

Dr Monteagudo: "Ambient Assisted Living" technologies and their social implications

5 08 2013

Dr. Jose L. Monteagudo


Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) It refers to the use of information and communications technology-based systems (ICT) so people, especially in the older, they can live better, healthier and more secure in your preferred environment.

Over the last decade national and European r & d programmes have stimulated the development of innovative applications based on ICT for AAL. Particularly noteworthy European AAL Joint Program [], supported by 23 countries and the European Commission. This program has funded more than 150 projects in the period of 2008 a 2013. These projects have been directed to the support of seniors in areas such as the prevention and management of chronic conditions, social interaction, independence, mobility, the self-management in the activities of daily living and work or not paid.


Fig.1. Portada del catalogo de Proyectos del Programa Conjunto Europeo de Ambient Assisted Living (AAL)

Fig. 1. Cover of the catalogue of projects of the program set European of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL)

Research activities range from practical aspects of using Wearable Sensors for people to design of integrated health and social care services. The results include a large number of pilot experiences that have focused mainly on verifying prototypes and technical architectures. However, a pending issue is to get the dissemination of the results of r & d in order to make possible the access generalized to products and AAL systems deployment for the population in general of new services more tailored to the needs of the population, more efficient and more sustainable. To tackle this situation, in 2011 was launched on the initiative of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP-AHA) []. With this initiative, you try to save existing barriers to innovation throughout the chain of provision of health and social services through an interdisciplinary and intersectoral approach. The main objective is to increase 2 years of healthy life (HLY) European citizens in 2020.  HLY is a measure of functional health of people in Europe used to characterize a population beyond simple life expectancy statistics. chronic diseases, the fragility and disability tend to be most prevalent at an advanced age in such a way that a population with longer life expectancy may not be more healthy for this reason.


The EIP-AHA strategic implementation Plan has received the accession of 261 projects supported by groups of different types of stakeholders in the public and private. in addition identified 54 "regions and municipalities as ' reference sites" for Exchange of good practices and share knowledge and experience in actions for active and healthy ageing. in this collaborative framework, the Carlos III Health Institute participates in the action group B3 on "integrated chronic disease care, at the regional level, including remote monitoring"by project PITES (Platform for innovation in telemedicine and e-health). In particular this project focuses on security, the empowerment of patients, the support to the decision making by physicians and interoperability interoperability of devices and systems AAL (or better their absence) It is a major obstacle to the widespread diffusion because it increases costs and reduces the effectiveness of the systems impantados.

Beyond the sphere of devices, one of the biggest concerns is the interoperability of the data with the electronic health record and other information systems related to the health of persons under care. Also the increasing need for organisational interoperability is emerging, the ability of different organizations and professionals to exchange information and to collaborate on complex shared processes.


Fig. 2  Desarrollo de robots asistentes de las personas mayores en su vida cotidiana (Ref. Proyecto DOMEO

Fig. 2 Development of Assistant robots of the elderly in their daily life (REF. Dome project

AAL technologies involve the creation of new worlds for old people.

Certainly, one of the most important forces driving human activity is the desire to optimize the health status and the improvement of quality of life. Individuals looking to achieve this for themselves, their family and communities that are part. intends that the AAL technologies will serve to help individuals live more years with more quality of life. I.e. more HLYs. However, it is difficult to assess the real impact of the AAL technologies in society and the implications of living in the digital world 'intelligent' environments. It is necessary to understand the complex relationship between technology and society particularly the implications of deployments large scale covering populations of millions of users. It should be noted that technologies do not create the transformation of society if same. They are designed, implemented and used by persons in their social contexts, Economic and technological. In addition, frequently, technologies have unintended consequences that combine to have relevant impacts not envisioned by the creators of technology. In line with this the challenge of the evaluation of the systems complex Sociotechnological carried out a future with AAL technologies in our daily lives, good for our parents or ourselves.


8 07 2013


Agustín Bassols Borrell

ADE graduated from the University of Barcelona




The last few weeks we are witnessing to return to our lives in the risk premium, the Troika, etc..., and turns to talk of financial markets and the duties that we have to do as a country, But what are and what they want "financial markets" and what can we do to plant them face.

Financial markets, they would be the people or institutions that channel billions and billions of euros or dollars from one place to another in the world looking for profitability, and they would be mainly represented by various funds (pension, investment, sovereigns, etc...), big banks, some mega-billionaires and other institutions. His only concern is their interest and recover the loans made and therefore, brings them carelessly unemployment, the labor reform, pensions or any other right or economic magnitude, provided it does not harm its aim.

This approach, It is absolutely lawful in the sense that one, When making a loan, you have every right to ask to be returned to you along with the interests of the same. The problem comes when you reach the point where is Spain for a few years and that is the not being able to pay. At this point is of course that the debtor has managed bad economy (in this case the country), but it is also evident that the creditor has made a mistake as it is the grant a loan to someone who, for the reason that it was, It has reached a situation of insolvency. It is therefore, It makes sense in a case so would be a burden-sharing in which the country and its citizens must make sacrifices to restructure and make viable economy and creditors, in minor cases, they should take some losses from a restructuring of the debt for having erred in granting credit.

The prevailing feeling in the country today is that they are only paying mistakes a part of the citizens of the country. I.e., are only paying citizens standing while the politicians and their environments have not assumed any responsibility, the banks are being saved, the institutions of the State are still not be reformed and creditors are imposing their conditions in collusion with politicians and bankers basically thinking about their short-term interests, but our politicians elected to carry out the counterweight that would correspond to in defense of our interests.

And hence the situation we're living with pension cuts, education, sanidad, labour, and many others, as well as with tax hikes, VAT, Income tax and rates several that all you are getting is sinking every day a little more the Spanish economy. That Yes, religiously paying principal and interest on the debt.

The problem we have is that every day that passes, We're losing negotiating capacity. If a couple of years ago, We had a lot of money as a country to foreign banks (mainly German and French), several investment funds, etc..., implies that two years ago, These funds and banks had a great concern for the situation of Spain as well as a lot of interest in that the situation is recondujese. During these years, all banks and funds who wanted to have able to go reducing their exposure to Spanish sovereign debt, given that they have been getting patches different complicated situations that have appeared (elections in Italy, sections of rescue and elections in Greece, Cyprus crisis, among others) but do not give a definitive solution to the problem.

As a simple observer of a foot of the situation, I see that individuals and companies had and have many debts with Spanish banks, that in turn were and are heavily indebted with German banks, Austrian, funds several and others. When Spanish companies and the Spanish in general run into trouble to return their credits by decreases in sales, dismissals, etc..., We ask the banks that they refinance our debts and mortgages, and these in turn, having no savings in the box, they need to seek refinancing to its creditors, that is to say, external financial markets.

On the other hand, to be in recession, State revenues down and shows a considerable deficit, It also seeks to refinance its debt and as banks and Spanish citizens they are already heavily indebted, no choice other that do well in foreign markets, so we have banks and the Spanish State asking for funding outside and a situation of major financial imbalances.

In this frame of mind, foreign financial markets which had financed the great Spanish bubble historically, practically they closed for Spain two years ago, unless exorbitant interests that had caused sooner or later pay, in case of staying many months, a default state.

Faced with this panorama, It should have been carried out a good long-term viability plan negotiating directly with Germany (It has become clear that it is who sends in Europe), the ECB, the EC and the IMF, and at that time (newcomer to the Government, Rajoy), We had the strength to do it since Spain put at risk the euro, and the German and European banks had many loans in Spain, but they did not do that, but that again opted for a patch to win time and Mr Draghi, also just arrived to the ECB that famous said "we will do whatever is necessary to preserve the euro" and injected billions of euros of liquidity into the market at an interest rate of the 1%, that he went to a large percentage to Spanish and Italian banks. In theory, These were to finance the economy, but they did not. Given that they were given money without conditions, what they did in the case of Spain was to cover some of their holes, pay foreign creditors and with the rest invest / Finance to the State to the 5% or more, or even dispose of the ECB to the 0% in the hope of what could happen or future maturity to attend. Of individuals and productive enterprises, in the real economy, not agreed nobody.

During these years, the Spanish sovereign debt historically in foreign hands has become, more and more, in the hands of the Spanish banks through the mechanism described above the ECB loans (We then miss us that want to keep the law of mortgages, etc...) or even own State agencies (I guess many know that the famous surplus or mattress of social security today is invested in a 99% in government debt).

This situation implies that foreign creditors each passing day recover more of their investment and on the other hand, they have time to go provisioned a possible loss and this result is that increasingly we have smaller capacity of negotiation. so they increasingly may require us more sacrifices we may oppose, Although many of them, as is being demonstrated, be counterproductive both short-term and long-term for our economy.

In summary, the time has come that the Spanish Government, discreet but firm way, requires a definitive solution that avoids the constant blackmail of demands or risk premium, day in day also, by senior European officials, more cuts or reforms. It is possible that a solution is the Bank Union, or maybe a possible greater capacity for action of the ECB independent from the dictates of the Bundesbank, But what is essential is to know where we are going and what we are asked to do so in order to be able to assess whether we are interested or not and avoid appearing new requirements as time passes.


1 07 2013

Agustín Bassols Borrell

ADE graduated from the University of Barcelona





Everyone is aware that during the 15 years prior to the crisis the Governments of Aznar and Zapatero fueled bubbles Spanish real estate, financial and debt without any of the institutions that should sound the alarm, as the Bank of Spain, the CNMV, senior officials of the State, etc..., did so despite having data that show the situation.

It is clear that the connivance of many addresses of these institutions with political parties as well as others such as the CGPJ or TC has led many citizens to the conclusion that we are in a State where there really is a division of powers. Hence, as a result the abysmal management carried out both by Governments on the right and left, not only the political class has been discredited but, by extension, most of the institutions of the State.

In addition, over the past years, deep with a crisis plaguing the citizens, We have seen how a few and others, they have not done, nor do amendment and have attended performances as the prosecutors exercising certain personalities lawyers, different Governments pardons characters who could be described as their "caste", political tactismos of the different parties to cover cases of corruption, several policies based on the "... and more...", demagogues by minority parties, election manifestos of major parties that have been cleaned the back the next day to win elections.

None of the significant politicians of the past years has made a real exercise of self-criticism to the citizens. Is more, in the majority of cases we have been accused to citizens themselves to be makers and even the feckless have borrowed more than necessary, but none of them has raised a real separation of powers, None of them has been a model of direct election-open mailing lists, None of them raised a concrete reform of the Senate, None of them has made self-criticism for the abuses that have been and still are committed (Preferred, Mortgage law, Clauses soil, …).

On the contrary, we see as our politicians and institutions (with honorable exceptions custom in many cases judges ranging for free) van carrying out the instructions provided them marked since the TROIKA (European Commission, ECB and IMF), who in turn are a simple tool called "financial markets".

This entire situation is putting out that we live in a State that still maintains a high level of lack of democracy so taking advantage of that now it is speaking for several reasons the convenience of constitutional reform, should not lose the opportunity of, In addition to point out and denounce everything that does not work, proposals to be included in the Magna Carta in order to improve. Allow me to make two that I think that surely lay according to a vast majority of citizens and on the other hand, given the recent history, They seem to be fundamental:

-Establish a true separation of powers Executive, legislative and judicial, preventing nominations to finger by political leaders of various institutions of the State, both regulatory and judicial, as well as the prohibition of future labour relations of political related regulated activities and companies in those sectors.

-Direct election by the citizens of our representatives without being forced to go through the lists of the parties. This would allow access to policy relevant people from all walks, with proven competence and which does not have dedicated themselves to servility and "lick asses" (Sorry for the expression) the list of party heads out in the photo. The idea is that politicians serve the people and not their parties as it is the case today.

Dr Herrero: The technology is almost more than our own imagination

3 06 2013

Javier Herrero Jover, MD, PhD

President of Alma IT Systems



We speak of digital medical images, yesterday with its incorporation into the hospitals seemed it would only solve a logistical problem of file and radiological management. Shortly after and established once, It was found that if software technology where engineers implemented certain algorithms used on these scanned images, they offered to physician solutions that were unthinkable until now, see a body in 3D, plan or quantify its functionality, for example calculating heart ejection or the turbulence of blood in an aneurysm.

Today we speak of the THE PATIENT-SPECIFIC MODEL  (SPM nabuur), This, the SPM is already an indispensable tool in the care of the patient in multiple specialties, Today we can learn not only the degree of obstruction of a coronary artery only quantify the type of such obstruction either calcium or triglyceride, We can quantify a tumor decrease after their cancer therapy by superimposing scans deferred in time or performing subtractions with TACS / magnetic resonance imaging. We also employ the SPM in the planning of an intervention of neurosurgery, in the calculation of the size of an implant of knee or in the case of Interventional Radiology,helping us navigate and guide us toward the aneurysm so that it can treat.

The absolute specificity of the patient,prevented from using a standard model,as in other branches of knowledge employee already outside the automotive industry, where the vehicle introduced in a computer model used to check their materials against a cash or an airplane model or an oil pipeline pipeline. In the case of the human, It has been thanks to the digitisation of radiological image that has allowed us to have a model specific patient and start to talk about personalized medicine that also builds on or from the SPM.

But as mentioned at the beginning of this article, technology runs almost more than our imagination and I say almost because as noted in a presentation that we performed at the Academy of engineering of Madrid in the 2005, PMS could serve so that in the future you could build anatomical structures on which to nest cells specific to give certain functions of organs, as pancreatic or liver activity. As well, in the recent publication “Bioresorbable Airway Splint Created with a three-dimensional Printer N Engl J Med 2013; 368:2043-2045 May 23, 2013” appears the use of PMS for the construction of a portion of the trachea to a baby's 4 months. the combination of regenerative medicine with software engineering will give , I'm sure in no time, surprising and pleasant surprises.