La regulación de la venta de medicinas online

27 11 2014

La regulación de la venta de medicinas online genera grandes oportunidades de negocio TI

 

La venta de medicinas online está regulada en España, aunque aún no se ha desarrollado. Los expertos coinciden en que hay muchas oportunidades.

España es uno de los países europeos que más oportunidades presenta en cuanto a E-Commerce. No sólo por los altos niveles de penetración móvil, si siquiera por la mejora de la economía.

 

Se estima que el porcentaje de transacciones online en España está en el 3%. En países como UK o Alemania se sitúa entre un 10 y un 15%. En los próximos años asistiremos a un considerable aumento de ese porcentaje y las farmacias online serán uno de los negocios beneficiarios.

 

Según anunció el Ministerio de Sanidad recientemente, a principios de 2015 empezará a funcionar la red de farmacias autorizadas para vender medicamentos a través de internet. Deberán hacerlo con un logotipo específico (aprobado por Bruselas) que acredite la legalidad de la actividad.

 

Pero aún queda trabajo por hacer. Según el primer Estudio de Mercado sobre la Presencia Digital de la Farmacia en España, los negocios no utilizan ni aprovechan las herramientas digitales y que casi la mitad de ellas no cumple la normativa legal.

 

En concreto, sólo el 30% está en Twitter y el 43% en Facebook. Un exiguo 0,2% de los encuestados admite usar herramientas de SEO.

El documento alerta de que 4 de cada 10 farmacias no cumple la normativa legal. Esta regla para la industria farmacéutica en redes sociales establece un marco ético y legal extensible a actividades promocionales. La normativa aplicable a internet abarca también el comercio electrónico, la protección de datos, la privacidad y la seguridad.

 

Esto se traduce en una nueva oportunidad de negocio para proveedores de servicios. Por un lado, para optimizar su comunicación a través de canales online, sin que esto infrinja la ley. Por otro, el aspecto más técnico. Las farmacias autorizadas para vender online deberán implementar tecnología de control de acceso, identificación del usuario y establecer una estructura de envíos rápida y eficiente. Por descontado, los datos de los pacientes deberán almacenarse de forma segura y ser accesibles en todo momento.

 

por Nerea Bilbao

 

 

Siliconnews.es [on-line] Silicon Valley, CA (USA): siliconnews.es, 27 de noviembre de 2014 [ref. 15 de octubre de 2014] Dispoñible en Internet:http://www.siliconnews.es/2014/10/15/la-regulacion-de-la-venta-de-medicinas-online-genera-grandes-oportunidades-de-negocio-ti/



Xavier Gómez-Batiste: máximo responsable de cuidados paliativos de la OMS

24 11 2014

Xavier Gómez-Batiste ha sido nombrado nuevo máximo responsable de cuidados paliativos de la OMS.

La OMS reconoce el liderazgo de Cataluña en programas de cuidados paliativos. Ayer se hizo la presentación de este nombramiento en el Departamento de Salud. Gómez-Batiste estuvo acompañado por el director general de Planificación e Investigación en Salud, Carles Constante; la directora del Instituto Catalán de Oncología (ICO), Candela Calle y el rector de la UVic, Jordi Montaña.

 

Xavier Gómez-Batiste, nuevo máximo responsable de cuidados paliativos de la OMS durante su presentación en el Departamento de Salud

Xavier Gómez-Batiste, director del Observatorio Qualy del ICO, director de la Cátedra de Cuidados Paliativos de la Universidad de Vic, director científico del Programa para la atención integral de personas con enfermedades avanzadas de la Obra social La Caixa, y director de Atención Paliativa de SARquavitae, ha sido designadoMedical Officer for Palliative and Longterm Carea la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) con sede en Ginebra.

 

Ayer se hizo la presentación de este nombramiento en el Departamento de Salud. Gómez-Batiste estuvo acompañado por el director general de Planificación e Investigación en Salud, Carles Constante; la directora del Instituto Catalán de Oncología (ICO), Candela Calle y el rector de la UVic, Jordi Montaña.

 

El nombramiento supone un reconocimiento al liderazgo que Cataluña ejerce en el ámbito de los cuidados paliativos, ya que desde 1990 es reconocida como territorio demostrativo de la OMS. Siguiendo esta tradición, Cataluña se ha incorporado con éxito a las tendencias más innovadoras en atención paliativa poniendo en marcha el modelo de atención a la complejidad avanzada (MACA).

 

El Plan de Salud de Cataluña 2011-2015 prevé una estrategia de mejora en la atención de las personas con enfermedad crónica avanzada, que representan entre el 1 y el 1,5% de la población, y que se caracterizan por tener un pronóstico de vida probablemente limitado, acompañado de necesidades de alta complejidad, sociales y sanitarias. Esta estrategia del Plan de Salud se articula mediante el Programa de prevención y atención a la cronicidad (PPAC) y en base al modelo catalán en cuidados paliativos.

 

Tamén, el Centro Colaborador de la OMS para Programas Públicos de Cuidados Paliativos del ICO ha apoyado a 52 países. También ha sido pionero el Programa para la Atención Integral de Personas con Enfermedades Avanzadas de la Obra social dela Caixa”, que ha implementado equipos de atención psicosocial espiritual, y la Cátedra de Cuidados Paliativos de la UVic- UCC / ICO, que fue la primera del Estado en esta temática.

 

El cargo a la OMS de Gómez-Batiste es de nueva creación y asume la máxima responsabilidad en cuidados paliativos de la OMS, a partir de la Resolución 67/19 de la Asamblea Mundial de la Salud de 24 de mayo de 2014 que insta a los gobiernos a diseñar e implementar programas de cuidados paliativos que mejoren la calidad de vida de las personas que padecen enfermedades crónicas avanzadas y sus familias. Gómez-Batiste será responsable de la creación de un grupo de expertos que diseñe un programa de cuidados paliativos de alcance internacional. Se hará la reunión fundacional en la ciudad de Barcelona.

 

 

 

Idibell.cat [on-line] Barcelona (ESP): idibell.cat, 24 de noviembre de 2014 [ref. 19 de noviembre de 2014] Dispoñible en Internet:http://www.idibell.cat/modul/noticies/es/737/xavier-gomez-batiste-ha-sido-nombrado-nuevo-maximo-responsable-de-cuidados-paliativos-de-la-oms



Typhoid gene unravelled

20 11 2014

People who carry a particular type of gene have natural resistance against typhoid fever according to new research published in Nature Genetics.

Lead researcher, Dr Sarah Dunstan from the Nossal Institute of Global Health at the University of Melbourne said the study is the first large-scale, unbiased search for human genes that affect a person’s risk of typhoid.

Typhoid is a health burden to lower income countries- www.ecofriend.com

Enteric fever, or typhoid fever as it more commonly known, is a considerable health burden to lower-income countries.

This finding is important because this natural resistance represents one of the largest human gene effects on an infectious disease.

“We screened the human genome to look for genes associated with susceptibility to, or resistance from typhoid.,” Dr Dunstan said.

“We found that carrying a particular form of the HLA-DRB1 gene provides natural resistance against typhoid fever.  This gene codes for a receptor that is important in the immune response, by recognising proteins from invading bacteria.”

Typhoid is contracted, by consuming food or water contaminated with the bacteria, Salmonella Typhi or Paratyphi. It has been estimated that typhoid causes 200,000 deaths a year globally, and infects 26.9 million people per year.

“If we can understand this natural mechanism of disease resistance, then we can use this knowledge to help develop improved vaccines for typhoid fever, but also potentially for other invasive bacterial disease,

Better treatments and vaccines are needed for typhoid fever as the infecting bacteria are getting increasingly more resistant to antibiotic treatment, and the current vaccine is only moderately effective and does not protect against paratyphoid fever, which is increasing within Asia.

This work was conducted in patients from Vietnam with findings then replicated in independent patient cohorts from Vietnam and Nepal

The research collaboration was between the Genome Institute of Singapore and Oxford University Clinical Research Units in Vietnam and Nepal.

 

 

Newsroom.melbourne.edu [on-line] Melbourne (AUS): newsroom.melbourne.edu, 20 de noviembre de 2014 [ref. 10 de noviembre de 2014] Dispoñible en Internet:http://newsroom.melbourne.edu/news/typhoid-gene-unravelled



Simple and strong predictor of diabetes risk found

17 11 2014

McMaster University researchers have discovered a simple way to predict an adult’s future risk of developing Type 2 diabetes.

The study, published in the journal Diabetologia, found that the blood glycaemia level at one hour after drinking a glucose solution of 75 grams beats every known Type 2 diabetes prediction model published to date.

From left: David Meyre, associate professor, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and Akram Alyass, a PhD student in computational science at McMaster

 

Having the one-hour plasma glucose (1h-PG) information alone is sufficient to identify people who are more at risk for developing Type 2 diabetes in the future,” said David Meyre, the paper’s senior author and an associate professor in the Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics at McMaster’s Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine. “Only 30% of non-diabetic middle-aged adults in the study displayed a high 1h-PG (higher than 8.9 mmol/l), but they accounted for 75% of all future diabetic cases”.

This measurement, known as one-hour plasma glucose (1h-PG), may help to identify high-risk subjects in the general population for inclusion in Type 2 diabetes prevention programs.

He added that such prevention programs, if applied on a global scale, may save billions of dollars and improve the lives of millions of people.

This is important as the prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes has more than doubled globally over the past 30 years, and the rate of death among patients with diabetes is about twice as high as among those without it. Problems related to the disease include blindness, heart attacks, kidney disease and infections leading to amputations.

Meyre added: “Applying mass screening programs in populations and enrolling people at risk in a simple and inexpensive lifestyle modification program, in cooperation with the family doctor, may prevent up to half of future Type 2 diabetes cases.

Another exciting perspective worth investigating is whether 1h-PG predicts future complications of Type 2 diabetes.

Using new mathematical methods to capture data on nearly 5,000 northern Europeans from two independent longitudinal studies, the researchers found that 1h-PG alone outperformed the popular but more complicated prediction models based on multiple clinical risk factors, including age, sex, body mass index and family history of diabetes.

The research team, which included colleagues from McMaster and universities in Lund, Sweden, and Helsinki, Finland, wrote that the value of the 1h-PG for Type 2 diabetes prediction in multi-ethnic longitudinal studies still needs to be assessed because the rate of the disease varies by ethnicity. However, they are fairly confident in the transferability of their results to other populations.

Colleagues from the University of Texas recently reported that one-hour plasma glucose was predictive of future Type 2 diabetes risk in Mexican Americans and this is encouraging,” said Akram Alyass, the study’s first author and a PhD student in computational science at McMaster.

The study was funded by several research foundations, hospitals and universities in Finland and Sweden. Meyre holds a Canada Research Chair in Genetic Epidemiology.

 

Study article: Modelling of OGTT curve identifies 1 h plasma glucose level as a strong predictor of incident type 2 diabetes: results from two prospective cohorts (Diabetologia)


 

Fhs.mcmaster.ca [on-line] Hamilton, ON (CAN): fhs.mcmaster.ca, 17 de noviembre de 2014 [ref. 14 de octubre de 2014] Dispoñible en Internet:http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/main/news/news_2014/predictor_of_diabetes_risk_study.html



Gene inhibitor, salmon fibrin restore function lost in spinal cord injury

13 11 2014

UCI Reeve-Irvine researchers identify novel combination treatment

A therapy combining salmon fibrin injections into the spinal cord and injections of a gene inhibitor into the brain restored voluntary motor function impaired by spinal cord injury, scientists at UC Irvine’s Reeve-Irvine Research Center have found.

In a study on rodents, Gail Lewandowski and Oswald Steward achieved this breakthrough by turning back the developmental clock in a molecular pathway critical to the formation of corticospinal tract nerve connections and providing a scaffold so that neuronal axons at the injury site could grow and link up again.

Oswald Steward is director of the Reeve-Irvine Research Center at UCI

Results appear in the July 23 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience.

The work expands on previous research at UCI. In 2010, Steward helped discover that axons flourish after the deletion of an enzyme called PTEN, which controls a molecular pathway regulating cell growth. PTEN activity is low during early development, allowing cell proliferation. PTEN subsequently turns on, inhibiting this pathway and precluding any ability to regenerate.

Two years later, a UCI team found that salmon fibrin injected into rats with spinal cord injury filled cavities at the injury site, giving axons a framework in which to reconnect and facilitate recovery. Fibrin is a stringy, insoluble protein produced by the blood clotting process and is used as a surgical glue.

“This is a major next step in our effort to identify treatments that restore functional losses suffered by those with spinal cord injury,” said Steward, professor of anatomy & neurobiology and director of the Reeve-Irvine Research Center, of the current findings. “Paralysis and loss of function from spinal cord injury has been considered irreversible, but our discovery points the way toward a potential therapy to induce regeneration of nerve connections.”

In their study, he and Lewandowski treated rodents with impaired hand movement due to spinal cord injury with a combination of salmon fibrin and a PTEN inhibitor called AAVshPTEN. A separate group of rodents got only AAVshPTEN.

The researchers saw that rats receiving the inhibitor alone did not exhibit improved motor function, whereas those given AAVshPTEN and salmon fibrin recovered forelimb use involving reaching and grasping.

“The data suggest that the combination of PTEN deletion and salmon fibrin injection into the lesion can significantly enhance motor skills by enabling regenerative growth of corticospinal tract axons,” Steward said.

According to the Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation, about 2 percent of Americans have some form of paralysis resulting from spinal cord injury, due primarily to the interruption of connections between the brain and spinal cord.

An injury the size of a grape can lead to complete loss of function below the site of occurrence. For example, an injury to the neck can cause paralysis of the arms and legs, an absence of sensation below the shoulders, bladder and bowel incontinence, sexual dysfunction, and secondary health risks such as susceptibility to urinary tract infections, pressure sores and blood clots due to an inability to move the legs.

Steward said the next objective is to learn how long after injury the combination treatment can be effectively administered. “It would be a huge step if it could be delivered in the chronic period weeks and months after an injury, but we need to determine this before we can engage in clinical trials,” he said.

Lewandowski is a project scientist in the Reeve-Irvine Research Center. The study received support from the National Institutes of Health (grant R01 NS047718) and donations from Cure Medical and Unite 2 Fight Paralysis.

About the Reeve-Irvine Research Center: The mission of the Reeve-Irvine Research Center is to find new treatments for spinal cord injury through the collaborative research and educational efforts of prominent scientists and clinicians both at UCI and around the world. For more information, visit www.reeve.uci.edu.

 

 

News.uci.edu [on-line] Irvine, CA (USA): news.uci.edu, 13 de noviembre de 2014 [ref. 23 de julio de 2014] Dispoñible en Internet:http://news.uci.edu/press-releases/gene-inhibitor-salmon-fibrin-restore-function-lost-in-spinal-cord-injury/



Investigadores miden por primera vez una propiedad del ADN

10 11 2014

La capacidad de polarización eléctrica del ADN es una propiedad fundamental que influye directamente en sus funciones biológicas. Sin embargo, a pesar de la importancia de esta propiedad no ha sido posible medirla hasta ahora.

En un estudio publicado hoy en PNAS los investigadores en el Instituto de Bioingeniería de Cataluña (IBEC) dirigidos por Laura Fumagalli, investigadora sénior en el IBEC y profesora de la Universidad de Barcelona (UB), y sus colaboradores del Instituto de Investigación Biomédica (IRB), del Barcelona Supercomputing Center–Centro Nacional de Supercomputación (BSC-CNS), del Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC) y del Instituto IMDEA de Nanociencia en Madrid, describen cómo han encontrado una manera para medir directamente la capacidad de polarización eléctrica del ADNrepresentada por su constante dieléctrica que indica cómo reacciona un material a la aplicación de un campo eléctricopor primera vez en la historia.

Los investigadores lo han logrado gracias al uso de su propia técnica, desarrollada recientemente en el IBEC, basada en el microscopio de fuerza electrostática (EFM, del inglés electrostatic force microscopy). Este tipo de microscopio permite a los investigadores explorar no sólo la morfología de los complejos biológicos individuales en su entorno natural, sino también para medir las propiedades electrostáticas que hacen que cada objeto sea único. Sin embargo, hasta ahora esta propiedad clave del ADNsu capacidad de polarización eléctricaha permanecido desconocida, debido a las dificultades inherentes para conseguir dicha medida dada la compleja estructura del ADN.

Los investigadores han sido capaces de cuantificar la constante dieléctrica del ADN de una manera no invasiva mediante la medición del ADN en su estado nativo, condensado, dentro de un bacteriófagoun virus que infecta y se replica dentro de una bacteria. La naturaleza especial de estos virus significa que llevan información genética condensada en una pequeña carcasa, lo que significa que mantienen el ADN en una estructura casi cristalina que los investigadores fueron capaces de diseccionar para determinar las constantes dieléctricas de los principales componentes; la cubierta de proteína y el ADN.

Los resultados muestran que la constante dieléctrica del ADN está alrededor de 8, muy por encima de lo que se suele suponer, y los investigadores confirman este valor basándose en cálculos teóricos muy precisos, utilizando herramientas computacionales atomísticas de última generación y los recursos computacionales del Barcelona Supercomputing Center–Centro Nacional de Supercomputación Los cálculos dieron como resultado prácticamente el mismo valor, alrededor de 8, que coincide con sus observaciones experimentales.

Nuestros experimentos y cálculos revelan una propiedad propia de ADN que permite la predicción realista de su conformación y sus funciones sobre la base de herramientas computacionales y nos ayuden a comprender mejor las funciones esenciales que el ADN desempeña en nuestro cuerpo”, dice Modesto Orozco, jefe del Programa Conjunto de Investigación en Biología Computacional Instituto de Investigación Biomédica–Barcelona Supercomputing Center, y profesor de la UB. “Estos experimentos también abren nuevas vías para explorar propiedades de polarización fundamentales de otras biomoléculas.

 

Artículo de referencia: Ana Cuervo, Pablo D. Dans, Jose L. Carrascosa, Modesto Orozco, Gabriel Gomila and Laura Fumagalli (2014). Direct measurement of the dielectric polarization properties of DNA. PNAS, pub ahead of print

 

 

ibecbarcelona.eu [on-line] Barcelona (ESP): ibecbarcelona.eu, 10 de noviembre de 2014 [ref. 18 de agosto de 2014] Dispoñible en Internet: http://www.ibecbarcelona.eu/NOTICIAS-DE-INVESTIGACION/investigadores-miden-por-primera-vez-una-propiedad-del-adn.html



Possible Alternative to Bariatric Weight Loss Surgery

6 11 2014

An experimental procedure successfully tested in obese laboratory rats may provide a less-invasive alternative to bariatric weight-loss surgery, researchers report online in Endocrinology.

Scientists at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center used a catheter to re-direct the flow of bile from the bile duct into the small intestine, producing the same metabolic and weight-loss benefits as bariatric surgeries such as gastric by-pass. They named the procedure bile diversion, or BD.

 

“This may lead to novel ways to treat obesity related conditions,” said lead investigator, Rohit Kohli, MBBS, MS, a physician and researcher in the Division of Gastroenterology at Cincinnati Children’s. “Our results provide compelling evidence that manipulation of bile acids is sufficient to recreate the key effects of bariatric procedures, including gastric bypass, and may be especially beneficial to people with obesity related liver dysfunction.”

 

Bariatric surgery has become an important therapeutic option for morbid obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastric bypass surgery is associated with sustained weight loss and reduced overall mortality in patients. Still, the invasive procedure – which involves altering the gastrointestinal anatomy of patients – also comes with medical risks.

 

Physicians also do not fully understand the biological mechanisms that produce the post-surgical benefits of procedures like gastric bypass. It is theorized that elevated levels of bile acids detected in the blood of patients trigger molecular processes that may help improve metabolism and energy expenditure.

 

In the current study, Kohli and his collaborators – which included researchers at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine – worked from the hypothesis that diverting bile acid in obese rats would recreate the benefits of bariatric surgery.

 

Male rats with diet-induced obesity received either the bile diversion procedure or a sham surgery in which the bile duct was dissected. A third group of animals did not undergo surgery and were also used as an experimental control group. Researchers then compared the metabolic effects of bile diversion, sham surgery and no surgery for five weeks as rats in all three groups were fed high-fat diets.

 

Rats undergoing bile diversion had elevated levels of bile acids in their blood and exhibited increased weight loss, reduced fat mass, improved glucose tolerance and reduced liver fat. These characteristics were not observed in the sham or “no surgery” groups.

 

Kohli said the researchers will use their findings to further explore how bile diversion and increased bile acids in the blood drive molecular signaling pathways leading to metabolic improvement and weight loss. While emphasizing that extensive additional research is still required, Kohli added an eventual goal is to develop therapeutic agents that can produce the same benefits as bariatric surgery without patients having to go through surgical procedures that alter intestinal anatomy.

 

Funding support for the study came from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases grants (K08 DK084310-03, U01 DK08505, P30 DK078392) and from Ethicon Endo-Surgery.

 

Cincinnatichildrens.org [on-line] Cincinnati, OH (USA): cincinnatichildrens.org, 07 de noviembre de 2014 [ref. 01 de mayo de 2013] Dispoñible en Internet: http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/news/release/2013/bariatric-surgery-obesity-4-30-2013/



School-based screening for eating disorders

3 11 2014

School-based screening for eating disorders could improve detection and outcomes.

A brief screening survey to identify teens at risk for an eating disorder could lead to earlier diagnosis and help find hard-to-detect cases, which could lower overall treatment costs and improve outcomes, Boston Children’s Hospital researchers report today in American Journal of Public Health.

“Many cases of eating disorders go undetected for years. This may be because the stereotype that the typical teen with an eating disorder is a thin, affluent, white female. In reality, eating disorders come in all shapes and sizes and both genders, and they affect people from all racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds,” says Kendrin R. Sonneville, ScD, RD, senior study author from Boston Children’s Division of Adolescent Medicine.

Eating disorders—anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder—are under diagnosed and under treated, particularly among low-income, minority, overweight and male teens. Only 3 to 28 percent of teens with eating disorders receive treatment for their condition. Moreover, interventions for eating disorders, such as residential treatment and lengthy therapy, tend to be very expensive. Teens with untreated eating disorders face medical complications, hospitalization and higher risk of early death.

The combination of under diagnosis, under treatment and high treatment costs has generated support for school-based screening, which could help identify teens with eating disorders. “However, the cost-effectiveness of school-based screening for eating disorders had not been demonstrated previously,” says Sonneville.

In order to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a school-based screening program, Sonneville and colleagues devised a computer simulation comparing annual screening of 10- to 17-year-olds to a no-screening scenario.

The researchers found that the 5-question survey boosted detection and treatment for eating disorders. Implementing a school-based screening program is a bargain in terms of time and money; screening costs $0.35 per student, and the survey can be scored in a few minutes.

“School-based screening for eating disorders is very likely a cost-effective approach to improving the health of teens. Early diagnosis leads to early treatment, which means these youth will get better faster and oftentimes avoid the long-term damage to their health and lives that the eating disorders can cause,” says Sonneville. “A simple screening for eating disorders in schools could give millions of kids a new chance for a healthy life.”

 

 

Childrenshospital.org [on-line] Boston, MA (USA): childrenshospital.org, 03 de noviembre de 2014 [ref. 18 de julio de 2014] Dispoñible en Internet: http://www.childrenshospital.org/news-and-events/2014/july-2014/school-based-screening-for-eating-disorders-could-improve-detection-and-outcomes